Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Physical-layer secrecy outage of spectrum sharing CR systems over fading channels


In this paper, we investigate the physical-layer secrecy outage performance of underlay spectrum sharing systems over Rayleigh and log-normal fading channels in the presence of one eavesdropper. In particular, the secondary transmitter sends data to the legitimate receiver under the constraints of the interference temperature at the primary receiver, while suffering the wiretap from the eavesdropper. Closed-form and approximated expressions are derived for the secrecy outage probability over Rayleigh and log-normal fading channels, respectively. The accuracy of our performance analysis is verified by simulation results.



在Underlay频谱共享系统中, 本文分别基于Rayleigh和log-normal衰落信道研究了存在一个窃密者时的物理层保密中断性能。当次级发送者在向次级接收者发送数据时, 不仅其发射功率受到主用户干扰功率容限的限制, 同时还要遭到窃密者的窃听。在Rayleigh和log-normal衰落信道下, 本文分别推导出了保密中断概率的准确和近似闭式表达式。最后, 通过了蒙特卡洛仿真验证了本文提出的性能分析模型。


本文首次研究了Underlay频谱共享系统分别在Rayleigh和log-normal衰落信道中的物理层保密中断性能, 并分别推导出了准确和近似闭式表达式。

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1

    Wyner D. The wire-tap channel. Bell Syst Tech J, 1975, 54: 1355–1367

  2. 2

    Bloch M, Barros J, Rodrigues M R D, et al. Wireless information theoretic security. IEEE Trans Inf Theory, 2008, 54: 2515–2534

  3. 3

    Liu T, Shamai S. A note on the secrecy capacity of the multiple-antenna wiretap channel. IEEE Trans Inf Theory, 2009, 55: 2547–2553

  4. 4

    Li Q, Song H, Huang K. Achieving secure transmission with equivalent multiplicative noise in MISO wiretap channels. IEEE Commu Lett, 2013, 17: 892–895

  5. 5

    Li Q, Ma W-K, Man-Cho So A. A safe approximation approach to secrecy outage design for MIMO wiretap channels. IEEE Sig Process Lett, 2014, 21: 118–121

  6. 6

    Sun X, Wang J, Xu W, et al. Performance of secure communications over correlated fading channels. IEEE Sig Process Lett, 2012, 19: 479–482

  7. 7

    Liu X. Secrecy capacity of wireless links subject to log-normal fading. In: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, Kunming, 2012. 167–172

  8. 8

    Zhang X, Pan G, Tang C, et al. Performance analysis of physical layer security over independent/correlated lognormal fading channels. In: Proceedings of Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, Melbourne, 2014. 23–27

  9. 9

    Zahurul M, Sarkar I, Ratnarajah T. Secrecy capacity over correlated log-normal fading channel. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Ottawa, 2012. 883–887

  10. 10

    Mitola J. Cognitive radio: an integrated agent architecture for software defined radio. Dissertation for Ph.D. Degree. Stockholm: KTH, 2000

  11. 11

    Shu Z, Qian Y, Ci S. On physical layer security for cognitive radio networks. IEEE Netw, 2013, 27: 28–33

  12. 12

    Zou Y, Wang X, Shen W. Physical-layer security with multiuser scheduling in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Trans Commu, 2013, 61: 5103–5113

  13. 13

    Sakran H, Shokair M, Nasr O, et al. Proposed relay selection scheme for physical layer security in cognitive radio networks. IET Commun, 2012, 6: 2676–2687

  14. 14

    Wen H, Li S, Zhu X, et al. A framework of the PHY-layer approach to defense against security threats in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Netw, 2013, 27: 34–39

  15. 15

    Tang C, Pan G, Li T. Secrecy outage analysis of underlay cognitive radio unit over Nakagami-m fading channels. IEEE Wirel Commun Lett, 2014, 3: 609–612

  16. 16

    Elkashlan M, Wang L, Duong T Q, et al. On the security of cognitive radio networks. IEEE Trans Veh Techol, 2015, 64: 3790–3795

  17. 17

    Papoulis A. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001

  18. 18

    He F, Man H, Wang W. Maximal ratio diversity combining enhanced security. IEEE Commun Lett, 2011, 15: 509–511

  19. 19

    Krishnamoorthy K. Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications. New York: Chapman & Hall, 2006

  20. 20

    Fenton L. The sum of log-normal probability distributions in scatter transmission systems. IRE Trans Commun Syst, 1960, 8: 57–67

  21. 21

    Pan G, Tang C, Zhang X, et al. Physical layer security over non-small scale fading channels. IEEE Trans Veh Tech, 2016, 65: 1326–1339

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Gaofeng Pan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, H., Zhao, H., Jiang, H. et al. Physical-layer secrecy outage of spectrum sharing CR systems over fading channels. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 102308 (2016).

Download citation


  • spectrum sharing
  • cognitive radio
  • secrecy outage probability
  • Rayleigh fading channels
  • log-normal fading channels


  • 频谱共享
  • 认知无线电
  • 保密中断概率
  • Rayleigh 衰落信道
  • log-normal 衰落信道