Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Application of fast factorized back-projection algorithm for high-resolution highly squinted airborne SAR imaging

应用快速分解后向投影算法对机载大斜视SAR成像处理

  • 144 Accesses

  • 2 Citations

Abstract

In squinted synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, the range-azimuth coupling requires precise range cell migration correction (RCMC). Moreover, for high-resolution airborne SAR, motion compensation (MOCO) becomes complicated as the squint angle increases, thereby degrading the performance of Doppler-domain imaging algorithms. On the other hand, time-domain back-projection (BP) SAR imaging approaches are considered as optimal solutions to performing precise image focusing and MOCO. Among current BP algorithms, the fast factorized back-projection (FFBP) algorithm is one of the most essential representatives that achieve high-resolution images in an efficient manner. In this paper, the principle and applications of the FFBP algorithm are investigated through the derivation of the azimuth impulse response function (AIRF) of the resulting image. The phenomenon of spectrum displacement induced by motion errors in the BP image is presented and analyzed. Based on rigorous mathematical derivations, a modified FFBP algorithm is proposed to facilitate a seamless integration with motion compensation and accurate imagery of high-resolution highly squinted airborne SAR. Real data results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

摘要

创新点

创新点:本文结合机载大斜视SAR成像背景,通过后向投影积分的方位脉冲响应函数对FFBP算法处理进行了分析,指出了存在运动误差时,FFBP子孔径成像融合中存在的频率偏移现象,并针对此提出了改进FFBP算法,实现精确无模糊成像,实测高分辨率大斜视机载SAR数据实验验证了本文提出的改进FFBP算法。

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1

    Cumming I G, Wong F H. Digital Processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Algorithms and Implementation. Norwood: Artech House, 2005

  2. 2

    Soumekh M. Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms. New York: John Wiley, 1999

  3. 3

    Smith A M. A new approach to range-Doppler SAR processing. Int J Remote Sens, 1991, 12: 235–251

  4. 4

    Raney R K, Runge H, Bamler R, et al. Precision SAR processing using chirp scaling. IEEE Trans Geosci Remot Sens, 1994, 32: 786–799

  5. 5

    Moreira A, Huang Y H. Airborne SAR processing of highly squinted data using a chirp scaling approach with integrated motion compensation. IEEE Trans Geosci Remot Sens, 1994, 32: 1029–1040

  6. 6

    Davidson G W, Cumming I G, Ito M R. A chirp scaling approach for processing squint mode SAR data. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst, 1996, 32: 121–133

  7. 7

    Wong F H, Yeo T S. New applications of the nonlinear chirp scaling in SAR data processing. IEEE Trans Geosci Remot Sens, 2001, 39: 946–953

  8. 8

    An D X, Huang X T, Jin T, et al. Extended nonlinear chirp scaling algorithm for high-resolution highly squint SAR data focusing. IEEE Trans Geosci Remot Sens, 2012, 50: 3595–3609

  9. 9

    Sun G C, Xing M D, Liu Y, et al. Extended NCS based on method of series reversion for imaging of highly squinted SAR. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2011, 8: 446–450

  10. 10

    Zhang S X, Xing M D, Xia X G, et al. Focus improvement of high-squint SAR based on azimuth dependence of quadratic range cell migration correction. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2013, 10: 150–154

  11. 11

    Cafforio C, Prati C, Rocca F. SAR data focusing using seismic migration techniques. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst, 1991, 27: 194–207

  12. 12

    Bamler R. A comparison of range-Doppler and wavenumber domain SAR focusing algorithms. IEEE Trans Geosci Remot Sens, 1992, 30: 706–713

  13. 13

    Cumming G, Neo Y L, Wong F H. Interpretations of the Omega-k algorithm and comparisons with other algorithms. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Toulouse, 2003: 1455–1458

  14. 14

    Reigber A, Alivizatos E, Potsis A, et al. Extended wavenumber-domain synthetic aperture radar focusing with integrated motion compensation. IEE Proc-Radar Sonar Navig, 2006, 153: 301–310

  15. 15

    Fornaro G, Franceschetti G, Perna S. On center-beam approximation in SAR motion compensation. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2006, 3: 276–280

  16. 16

    de Macedo K A C, Scheiber R. Precise topography- and aperture-dependent motion compensation for airborne SAR. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2005, 2: 172–176

  17. 17

    Prats P, Reigber A, Mallorqui J J. Topography-dependent motioncompensation repeat-pass interferometric SAR systems. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2005, 2: 206–210

  18. 18

    Li Y L, Liang X D, Ding C B, et al. Improvements to the frequency division-based subaperture algorithm for motion compensation in wide-beam SAR. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2013, 10: 1219–1223

  19. 19

    Ding Z G, Liu L S, Zeng T, et al. Improved motion compensation approach for squint airborne SAR. IEEE Trans Geosci Remot Sens, 2013, 51: 4378–4387

  20. 20

    Fornaro G, Franceschetti G, Perna S. Motion compensation of squinted airborne SAR raw data: role of processing geometry. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Anchorage, 2004: 1518–1521

  21. 21

    Zhang L, Sheng J L, Xing M D, et al. Wavenumber-domain autofocus for highly squinted UAV SAR imagery. IEEE Sens J, 2012, 50: 1574–1588

  22. 22

    Yang L, Xing M D, Wang Y, et al. Compensation for the NsRCM and phase error after polar format resampling for airborne spotlight SAR raw data of high resolution. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2013, 10: 165–169

  23. 23

    Zeng T, Li Y H, Ding Z G, et al. Subaperture approach based on azimuth-dependent range cell migration correction and azimuth focusing parameter equalization for maneuvering high-squint-mode SAR. IEEE Trans Geoscie Remote Sens, 2015, 53: 6718–6734

  24. 24

    Jakowatz C V, Wahl D E, Yocky D A. Beamforming as a foundation for spotlight-mode SAR image formation by backprojection. In: Proceedings of SPIE—Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery XV, Orlando, 2008. 6970: 69700Q

  25. 25

    Li Y H, Song Q, Jin T, et al. Arbitrary synthetic aperture motion compensation based on fast back projection. In: Proceedings of 2010 European Radar Conference (EuRAD), Paris, 2010. 487–490

  26. 26

    Frey O, Magnard C, Rüegg M, et al. Focusing of airborne synthetic aperture radar data from highly nonlinear flight tracks. IEEE Trans Geosci Remot Sens, 2009, 47: 1844–1858

  27. 27

    Vu V T, Sjogren T K, Petersson M I. A comparison between fast farctorized backprojection and frequency-domain algorithms in UWB low frequency SAR. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Boston, 2008. 1293–1296

  28. 28

    Yegulalp A F. Fast backprojection algorithm for synthetic aperture radar. In: Proceedings of IEEE Radar Conference, Waltham, 1999. 60–65

  29. 29

    Wahl D E, Yocky D A, Jakowatz C V. An implementation of a fast backprojection image formation algorithm for spotlight-mode SAR. In: Proceedings of SPIE—Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery XV, Orlando, 2008. 6970: 69700H

  30. 30

    Ulander L M H, Hellsten H, Stenstrm G. Synthetic aperture radar processing using fast factorized back-projection. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst, 2003, 39: 760–776

  31. 31

    Zhang L, Li H L, Qiao Z J, et al. A fast BP algorithm with wavenumber spectrum fusion for high resolution spotlight SAR imagery. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2014, 11: 1460–1464

  32. 32

    Carrara W G, Goodman R S, Majewski R M. Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar: Signal Processing Algorithm. Boston: Artech House, 1995. 245–254

  33. 33

    Marcelo A, Pau P, Rolf S. Applications of time-domain back-projection SAR processing in the airborne case. In: Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (EUSAR), Friedrichshafen, 2008. 1–4

  34. 34

    Frolind P-O, Ulander L M H. Evaluation of angular interpolation kernels in fast back-projection SAR processing. IEE Proc-Radar Sonar Navig, 2006, 15: 201–211

  35. 35

    Zhang L, Li H L, Qiao Z J, et al. Integrating autofocus techniques with fast factorized back-projection algorithm for high-resolution spotlight SAR imagery. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2013, 10: 1394–1398

  36. 36

    Cantalloube H M J, Nahum C E. Multiscale local map-drift-driven multilateration SAR autofocus using fast polar format image synthesis. IEEE Trans Geosci Remot Sens, 2011, 49: 3730–3736

  37. 37

    Fan B K, Ding Z G, Guo W B, et al. An improved motion compensation method for high resolution UAV SAR imaging. Sci China Inf Sci, 2014, 57: 122301

  38. 38

    Kragh T J, Kharbouch A A. Monotonic iterative algorithm for minimum-entropy autofocus. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Atlanta, 2006. 645–648

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61301280, 61301293). The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments to improve the paper quality.

Author information

Correspondence to Lei Zhang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, L., Li, H., Xu, Z. et al. Application of fast factorized back-projection algorithm for high-resolution highly squinted airborne SAR imaging. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 60, 062301 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-015-0927-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
  • fast factorized back-projection (FFBP)
  • modified fast factorized back-projection (MFFBP)
  • squinted SAR
  • motion compensation (MOCO)

关键词

  • 合成孔径雷达
  • 快速分解后向投影
  • 改进快速分解后向投影
  • 斜视SAR
  • 运动补偿