The effect of grid shape on the properties of transparent conductive films based on flexographic printing

Abstract

The effect of grid shape on the properties of transparent conductive films (TCFs) is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The light transmittance by three types of grid shapes: triangle, square and hexagon have been theoretically calculated and simulated. It was found that hexagonal grid unit has the highest light transmittance limit under the practical lattice parameters and its decrease in light transmittance caused by the increase of line width in printing process is the least. The grid of three different shapes with same theoretical transmittance is fabricated through flexographic printing. The result shows that the actual light transmittance of the printed TCFs is lower than its theoretical value because of the inevitable width increase of printed grid lines, with slight difference between the three shapes. However, it is greatly different in terms of conductivity, leading to variation in the quality factor Q (defined as the ratio of light transmittance to total resistance) which represents the performance of TCFs. The Q of hexagonal grid (6.04) is the highest, which is 21% higher than that of the square grid.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1

    Jin Y X, Deng D Y, Jiang C J, et al. Site-selective growth of patterned silver grid networks as flexibletransparent conductive film by using poly (dopamine) at room temperature. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2014, 6: 1447–1453

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Hu L, Wu H, Cui Y. Metal nanogrids, nanowires, and nanofibers for transparent electrodes. MRS Bull, 2011, 36: 760–765

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Lipomi D J, Tee B C K, Vosgueritchian M, et al. Stretchable organic solar cells. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 1771–1775

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Layani M, Magdassi S. Flexible transparent conductive coatings by combining self-assembly with sintering of silver nanoparticles performed at room temperature. Mater Chem, 2011, 21: 15378–15382

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Tokuno T, Nogi M, Karakawa M, et al. Fabrication of silver nanowire transparent electrodes at room temperature. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2011, 3: 4075–4084

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Kumar A, Zhou C. The race to replace tin-doped indium oxide: Which material will win? ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 11–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Hong S, Yeo J, Kim G, et al. Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink. ACS Nano, 2013, 7: 5024–5031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Ai B, Zhang Y H, Deng Y J, et al. Study on device simulation and performance optimization of the epitaxial crystalline silicon thin film solar cell. Sci China Tech Sci, 2012, 55: 3187–3199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    He B, Wang H Z, Li Y G, et al. Fabrication and characterization of amorphous ITO/p-Si heterojunction solar cell. Sci China Tech Sci, 2013, 56: 1870–1876

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Galagan Y, Rubingh J E J M, Andriessen R, et al. ITO-free flexible organic solar cells with printed current collecting grids. Sol Energ Mat Sol C, 2011, 95: 1339–1343

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Krebs F C. Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large-area polymer solar cells free from indiμm-tin-oxide. Sol Energ Mat Sol C, 2009, 93: 1636–1641

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Krebs F C, Tromholt T, Jorgensen M. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing. Nanoscale, 2010, 2: 873–886

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Wu L Y L, Kerk W T, Wong C C. Transparent conductive film by large area roll-to-roll processing. Thin Solid Films, 2013, 544: 427–432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Hu L, Hecht D S, Grüner G. Percolation in transparent and conducting carbon nanotube networks. Nano Lett, 2004, 4: 2513–2517

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Bae S, Kim H, Lee Y, et al. Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat Nanotechnol, 2010, 5: 574–578

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Chen J, Bi H, Sun S R, et al. Highly conductive and flexible paper of 1D silver-nanowire-doped graphene. ACS Appl Mater Interf, 2013, 5: 1408–1413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Fang Y, Hou Y B, Lou Z D, et al. Surface plasmonic effect and scattering effect of Au nanorods on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. Sci China Tech Sci, 2013, 56: 1865–1869

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    De S, Higgins T M, Lyons P E, et al. Silver nanowire networks as flexible, transparent, conducting films: Extremely high DC to optical conductivity ratios. ACS Nano, 2009, 3: 1767–1774

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Madaria A R, Kumar A, Zhou C. Nanotechnology, 2011, 22: 245201–245208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Tokuno T, Nogi M, Karakawa M, et al. Nano Res, 2011, 4: 1215–1222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Su B, Zhang C, Chen S R, et al. A general strategy for assembling nanoparticles in one dimension. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 2501–2507

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Kang M G, Guo L J. Nanoimprinted semitransparent metal electrodes and their application in organic light-emitting diodes. Adv Mater, 2007, 19: 1391–1396

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Zhang Z L, Zhang X Y, Xin Z Q, et al. Controlled inkjetting of a conductive pattern of silver nanoparticles based on the coffee-ring effect. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 6714–6718

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Galagan Y, Rubingh J M, Andriessen R, et al. Sol Energ Mat Sol C, 2011, 95: 1339–1343

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Kang M G, Park J H, Ahn H S, et al. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2010, 94: 1179–1184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Yu J S, Jung G H, Jo J, et al. Sol Energ Mat Sol C, 2013, 109: 142–147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Feng C Y, Dong N. Research on the relationship of offset printing pressure and printing quality. J Henan Mech Elect Eng College, 2012, 20: 24–25

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to YanFang Xu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, W., Fang, Y., Xu, Y. et al. The effect of grid shape on the properties of transparent conductive films based on flexographic printing. Sci. China Technol. Sci. 57, 2536–2541 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-014-5683-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • metal grid
  • transparent conductive films
  • flexographic printing
  • grid shape
  • quality factor Q