An EcoCity model for regulating urban land cover structure and thermal environment: Taking Beijing as an example
- 311 Downloads
Urban land-use/cover changes and their effects on the eco-environment have long been an active research topic in the urbanization field. However, the characteristics of urban inner spatial heterogeneity and its quantitative relationship with thermal environment are still poorly understood, resulting in ineffective application in urban ecological planning and management. Through the integration of “spatial structure theory” in urban geography and “surface energy balance” in urban climatology, we proposed a new concept of urban surface structure and thermal environment regulation to reveal the mechanism between urban spatial structure and surface thermal environment. We developed the EcoCity model for regulating urban land cover structure and thermal environment, and established the eco-regulation thresholds of urban surface thermal environments. Based on the comprehensive analysis of experimental observation, remotely sensed and meteorological data, we examined the spatial patterns of urban habitation, industrial, infrastructure service, and ecological spaces. We examined the impacts of internal land-cover components (e.g., urban impervious surfaces, greenness, and water) on surface radiation and heat flux. This research indicated that difference of thermal environments among urban functional areas is closely related to the proportions of the land-cover components. The highly dense impervious surface areas in commercial and residential zones significantly increased land surface temperature through increasing sensible heat flux, while greenness and water decrease land surface temperature through increasing latent heat flux. We also found that different functional zones due to various proportions of green spaces have various heat dissipation roles and ecological thresholds. Urban greening projects in highly dense impervious surfaces areas such as commercial, transportation, and residential zones are especially effective in promoting latent heat dissipation efficiency of vegetation, leading to strongly cooling effect of unit vegetation coverage. This research indicates that the EcoCity model provides the fundamentals to understand the coupled mechanism between urban land use structure and surface flux and the analysis of their spatiotemporal characteristics. This model provides a general computational model system for defining urban heat island mitigation, the greening ratio indexes, and their regulating thresholds for different functional zones.
KeywordsUrban land-use/cover Urban impervious surface Ecological regulation Thermal environment Remote sensing
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work was financially supported by the Major Projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41590842) and General Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41371408).
- Anderson J W. 1976. Selection of trees for endurance of high temperatures and artificial lights in urban areas. USDA Forest Serv Gen Tech Rep, 22: 67–75Google Scholar
- Grimmond C S B, Blackett M, Best M J, Barlow J, Baik J J, Belcher S E, Bohnenstengel S I, Calmet I, Chen F, Dandou A, Fortuniak K, Gouvea M L, Hamdi R, Hendry M, Kawai T, Kawamoto Y, Kondo H, Krayenhoff E S, Lee S H, Loridan T, Martilli A, Masson V, Miao S, Oleson K, Pigeon G, Porson A, Ryu Y H, Salamanca F, Shashua-Bar L, Steeneveld G J, Tombrou M, Voogt J, Young D, Zhang N. 2010. The international urban energy balance models comparison project: First results from phase 1. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 49: 1268–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heisler G M, Brazel A J. 2010. The urban physical environment: Temperature and urban heat island. In: Aitkenhead-Peterson J, Volder A, eds. Urban Ecosystem Ecology. Madison: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America. 29–56Google Scholar
- Kuang W H. 2015. Remote Sensing-Based Analysis of Thermal Environment and Ecological Regulations in Cities. Beijing: Science PressGoogle Scholar
- Kuang W H, Zhang S W, Liu J Y, Shao Q Q. 2010. Methodology for classifying and detecting intra-urban land use change: A case study of Changchun city during the last 100 years (in Chinese). J Remote Sens, 14: 345–355Google Scholar
- Li Q, Gu C L. 2015. Study on dynamic Geo-simulation of urban public safety and its emergency response (in Chinese). Sci Sin Terr, 45: 290–304Google Scholar
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2003. Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing: A Framework for Assessment. Washington: Island Press. 38Google Scholar
- Oke T R. 1984. Methods in urban climatology. Appl Climatol, 14: 19–29Google Scholar
- Zhang R H, Sun X M, Wang W M, Xu J P, Zhu Z L, Tian J. 2005. An operational two-layer remote sensing model to estimate surface flux in regional scale: Physical background. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 48(Suppl): 225–244Google Scholar
- Zhou S Z, Zhang C. 1985. City Climate Introduction (in Chinese). Shanghai: East China Normal University PressGoogle Scholar