Skip to main content
Log in

Preliminary assessment of the navigation and positioning performance of BeiDou regional navigation satellite system

  • Research Paper
  • Published:
Science China Earth Sciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript


BeiDou regional navigation satellite system (BDS) also called BeiDou-2 has been in full operation since December 27, 2012. It consists of 14 satellites, including 5 satellites in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), 5 satellites in Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO), and 4 satellites in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). In this paper, its basic navigation and positioning performance are evaluated preliminarily by the real data collected in Beijing, including satellite visibility, Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) value, the precision of code and carrier phase measurements, the accuracy of single point positioning and differential positioning and ambiguity resolution (AR) performance, which are also compared with those of GPS. It is shown that the precision of BDS code and carrier phase measurements are about 33 cm and 2 mm, respectively, which are comparable to those of GPS, and the accuracy of BDS single point positioning has satisfied the design requirement. The real-time kinematic positioning is also feasible by BDS alone in the opening condition, since its fixed rate and reliability of single-epoch dual-frequency AR is comparable to those of GPS. The accuracy of BDS carrier phase differential positioning is better than 1 cm for a very short baseline of 4.2 m and 3 cm for a short baseline of 8.2 km, which is on the same level with that of GPS. For the combined BDS and GPS, the fixed rate and reliability of single-epoch AR and the positioning accuracy are improved significantly. The accuracy of BDS/GPS carrier phase differential positioning is about 35 and 20 % better than that of GPS for two short baseline tests in this study. The accuracy of BDS code differential positioning is better than 2.5 m. However it is worse than that of GPS, which may result from large code multipath errors of BDS GEO satellite measurements.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  • China Satellite Navigation Office. 2011. Development of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System. The 6th meeting of International Committee on GNSS

    Google Scholar 

  • China Satellite Navigation Office. 2012. BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Signal In Space Interface Control Document Open Service Signal B1I (Version 1.0). December 2012

    Google Scholar 

  • Gao W G, Jiao W H, Xiao Y, et al. 2011. An evaluation of the COMPASS Time System (BDT). J Navig, 64: S31–S39

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grelier T, Dantepal J, Delatour A, et al. 2007a. Initial observations and analysis of COMPASS MEO satellite signals. Inside GNSS, 2: 39–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Grelier T, Ghion A, Dantepal J, et al. 2007b. COMPASS signal structure and first measurements. ION GNSS 20th international technical meeting of the Satellite Division. Fort Worth, TX. 3015–3024

    Google Scholar 

  • Han C, Yang Y, Cai Z. 2011. BeiDou navigation satellite system and its timescales. Metrologia, 48: S213–S218

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hauschild A, Montenbruck O, Sleewaegen J M, et al. 2012. Characterization of COMPASS M-1 signals. GPS Solut, 16: 117–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hauschild A, Montenbruck O, Steigenberger P. 2013. Short-term analysis of GNSS clocks. GPS Solut, doi: 10.1007/s10291-012-0278-4

    Google Scholar 

  • Li J L, Yang Y X, Xu J Y, et al. 2013. Performance analysis of singleepoch dual-frequency RTK by BeiDou navigation satellite system. In: Sun J D, Jiao W H, Wu H T, et al., eds. Proceedings of China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2013. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 245: 133–143

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Montenbruck O, Hauschild A, Steigenberger P, et al. 2013. Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-2 regional navigation satellite system. GPS Solut, 17: 211–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shi C, Zhao Q, Hu Z, et al. 2013. Precise relative positioning using real tracking data from COMPASS GEO and IGSO satellites. GPS Solut, 17: 103–119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teunissen P J G. 1993. Least-squares estimation of the integer GPS ambiguities. Invited lecture, section IV “Theory and Methodology”, IAG General Meeting. Beijing, China

    Google Scholar 

  • Teunissen P J G. 1995. The least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: A method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation. J Geod, 70: 65–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang Y X. 2010. Progress, contribution and challenges of COMPASS/BeiDou satellite navigation system. Acta Geodaet et Cartograph Sin, 39: 1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang Y X, Li J L, Xu J Y, et al. 2011a. Contribution of the COMPASS satellite navigation system to global PNT users. Chin Sci Bull, 56: 2813–2819

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang Y X, Li J L, Xu J Y, et al. 2011b. Generalised DOPs with consideration of the influence function of signal-in-space errors. J Navig, 64: S3–S18

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to YuanXi Yang or JinLong Li.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yang, Y., Li, J., Wang, A. et al. Preliminary assessment of the navigation and positioning performance of BeiDou regional navigation satellite system. Sci. China Earth Sci. 57, 144–152 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: