Teleconnection between the Indian summer monsoon onset and the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley


Based on the Indian and Chinese precipitation data and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis circulation data, the relationship between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) onset and the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley has been discussed by the methods of correlation analysis and composite analysis. The results show that the date of ISM onset over Kerala in the southwestern coast of the Indian Peninsula is about two weeks earlier than the beginning of the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley. After the outbreak of ISM, the teleconnection mode sets up from the western coast of India via the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to the Yangtze River Valley and southern Japan. It is different both in time and space from the teleconnection mode which is from the northwest of India via the Tibetan Plateau to northern China. The former mode is defined as the “south” teleconnection of the Asian summer monsoon, forming in the period of ISM onset; while the latter mode is called the “north” teleconnection, mainly occurring in the Asian monsoon culminant period. During the process of the “south” teleconnection’s formation, the Asian monsoon circulation has experienced a series of important changes: ISM onset, the northward movement of the south Asia high (SAH), the onset vortex occurrence, the eastward extension of the stronger tropical westerly belt, and the northeastward jump of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), etc. Consequently, since ISM sets up over Kerala, the whole Asian continent is covered by the upper SAH after about two weeks, while in the mid-and lower troposphere, a strong wind belt forms from the Arabian Sea via the southern India, BOB and the South China Sea (SCS), then along the western flank of WPSH, to the Yangtze River Valley and southern Japan. With the northward moving of the subtropical jet streams, the upper westerly jet stream and the low level jet have been coupled vertically over east Asia, while the Yangtze River Valley happens to locate in the ascending motion area between the upper jet stream and the low level jet, i.e. right of the entrance of the upper jet stream and left of the low level jet. Such a structure of the vertical circulation can trigger the Meiyu onset over the Yangtze River Valley.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1

    Chen L X. The configuration of the East Asian monsoon circulation and its medium-term oscillation. Acta Oceanol Sin (in Chinese), 1984, 6(6): 744–758

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Tao S Y, Zhu W M, Zhao W. The interannual variability of Meiyu. Sci Atmos Sin (in Chinese), 1988, 12(Suppl): 13–21

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Ding Y H, Li C Y. Evolution of the South China Sea Monsoon and Its Interaction with the Ocean (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 1999. 1–4

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Zhang R H. The role of Indian summer monsoon water vapor transportation on the summer rainfall amomalies in the northern part of China during the El Niño mature phase. Plateau Meteorol (in Chinese), 1999, 18(4): 567–574

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Guo Q Y, Wang J Q. A comparative study on summer monsoon in China and India. J Trop Meteorol (in Chinese), 1988, 4(1): 53–60

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Kripalani R H, Kulkarni A. Rainfall variability over southeast Asia—Connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: Nw perspectives. Int J Climatol, 1997, 17: 1155–1168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Kripalani R H, Kulkarni A, Singh S V. Association of the Indian summer monsoon with the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude circulation. Int J Climatol, 1997, 17: 1055–1067

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Kripalani R H, Kulkarni A. Monsoon rainfall variations and teleconnections over South and East Asia. Int J Climatol, 2001, 21:603–616

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Ye D Z, Tao S Y, Li M C. The abrupt change of circulation over Northern Hemisphere during June and October. Acta Meteorol Sin (in Chinese), 1958, 29(4): 249–263

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Tao S Y, Ding Y H. Observational evidence of the influence of the Qignghai-Xizang Plateau on the occurrence of heavy rain and severe convective storms in China. Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 1981, 62: 23–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Tao S Y, Chen L X. A Review of Recent Research on the East Asian Summer Monsoon in China. Monsoon Meteorology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. 60–92

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Kalnay. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 1996, 77: 437–470

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Xie P, Arkin P A. Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 1997, 78: 2539–2558

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Rajeevan M, Bhate J, Kale J D, et al. Development of a high resolution daily gridded rainfall data for the Indian region. Met Monogr Climatol, 2005, 22: 1–27

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    He J H, Sun C H, Liu Y Y, et al. Seasonal Transition Features of Large-Scale Moisture Transport in the Asian-Australian Monsoon Region. Adv Atmos Sci, 2007, 24(1): 1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Ding Q H, Wang B. Circumglobal teleconnection in the Northern Hemisphere summer. J Clim, 2005, 18: 3483–3505

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Fasullo J, Webster P J. A hydrological definition of Indian Monsoon onset and withdrawal. J Clim, 2002, 16: 3200–3211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Joseoh P V, Sooraj K P, Rajan C K. The summer monsoon onset process over south Asia and an objective method for the data of monsoon onset over Kerala. Int J Climatol, 2006, 26: 1871–1893

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Krishnamurti T N, Ardanuy P, Ramanathan Y, et al. On the onset vortex of the summer monsoon. Mon Weather Rev, 1981, 109:344–363

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Liu Y Y, He J H, Liang J Y, et al. Features of Moisture Transport in Seasonal Transition over Asian-Australian Monsoon Regions (in Chinese). J Trop Meteorol, 2006, 22(2): 138–146

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Cressman G P. Circulation of the West-Pacific jet stream. Mon Weather Rev, 1981, 109: 2450–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to YunYun Liu.

Additional information

Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2006CB403604)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Liu, Y., Ding, Y. Teleconnection between the Indian summer monsoon onset and the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley. Sci. China Ser. D-Earth Sci. 51, 1021–1035 (2008).

Download citation


  • Indian summer monsoon (ISM)
  • the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley
  • teleconnection mode