Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 92–101

Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt., Beijing, China

  • Fang JingYun 
  • Liu GuoHua 
  • Zhu Biao 
  • Wang XiaoKe 
  • Liu ShaoHui 
Article

Abstract

There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as significant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha−1, of which 35–54 t C ha−1 from vegetation biomass C and 209–244 t C ha−1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33–3.55 t C ha−1 a−1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respiration were estimated at 1.63–2.34, 2.19–6.93, and 1.81–3.49 t C ha−1 a−1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha−1 a−1, about half of which (46%–59%, 3.20–5.89 t C ha−1 a−1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha−1 a−1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

Keywords

carbon budget carbon density carbon flux mountainous area temperate forest 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Schlesinger W H. Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change, 2nd edition. New York: Academic Press, 1997Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Battle M, Bender M L, Tans P P, et al. Global carbon sinks and their variability inferred from atmospheric O2 and delta C-13. Science, 2000, 287: 2467–2470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Myneni R B, Dong J, Tucker C J, et al. A large carbon sink in the woody biomass of Northern forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2001, 98: 14784–14789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goodale C L, Apps M J, Birdsey R A, et al. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere. Ecol Appl, 2002, 12: 891–899Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fang J Y, Chen A P, Peng C H, et al. Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998. Science, 2001, 292: 2320–2322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Choi S D, Lee K, Chang Y S. Large rate of uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide by planted forest biomass in Korea. Glob Biogeoche Cycles, 2002, 16, 1089, doi:10.1029/2002GB001914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fang J Y, Oikawa T, Kato T, et al. Biomass carbon accumulation by Japan’s forests from 1947 to 1995, Glob Biogeoche Cycles, 2005, 19, GB2004, doi:10.1029/2004GB002253Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Valentini R, Matteuccl G, Dolman A J, et al. Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests. Nature, 2000, 404: 861–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hamilton J G, DeLucia E H, George K, et al. Forest carbon balance under elevated CO2. Oecologia, 2002, 131: 250–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peng S L, Zhang Z P. Biomass, productivity and energy use efficiency of climax vegetation on Dinghu Mountains, Guangdong, China. Sci China Ser B-Chem, 1995, 1: 67–73Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fang J Y, Wang X K. Measurement of respiration amount of white birch (Betula platyphylla) population in the mountainous region of Beijing. J Environ Sci, 1995, 7: 391–398Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sang W G, Ma K P, Chen L Z. Primary study on carbon cycling in warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest. Acta Phytoecol Sin (in Chinese), 2002, 26: 543–548Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhou G Y, Zhou C Y, Liu S G, et al. Belowground carbon balance and accumulative rate in a successional monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 2005, 35: 502–510Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li Y D, Wu Z M, Zeng Q B, et al. Carbon pool and carbon dioxide dynamics of tropical mountain rain forest ecosystem at Jianfengling, Hainan Island. Acta Ecol Sin (in Chinese), 1998, 18: 371–378Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Clark D A, Brown S, Kicklighter D W, et al. Measuring net primary production in forests: concepts and filed methods. Ecol Appl, 2001, 11: 356–370Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hogberg P, Nordgren A, Buchmann N, et al. Large-scale forest girdling shows that current photosynthesis drives soil respiration. Nature, 2001, 411: 789–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yu G R. Global Change, Carbon Cycle and Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems (in Chinese). Beijing: Meteorology Press, 2003Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu S H, Fang J Y, Kiyota M. Soil respiration of mountainous temperate forests in Beijing, China. Acta Phytoecol Sin (in Chinese), 1998, 22: 119–126Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fang J Y. An approach to estimating respiration of forest community and its application. Acta Bot Sin (in Chinese), 1999, 41: 88–94Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Editorial Board of Vegetation of China. Vegetation of China (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 1980Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen L Z. Study on the Structure and Function of Warm Temperate Forest Ecosystems (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1997Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen L Z, Huang J H, Yan C R. Nutrient Cycling in Chinese Forest Ecosystems (in Chinese). Beijing: Meteorology Press, 1997Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mao S S, Song F S. The study of the climatic characteristics of the research site of Beijing forest ecosystem research station (BRERS). In: Chen LZ, ed. Study on the Structure and Function of Warm Temperate Forest Ecosystems (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 1997. 28–37Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fang J Y, Wang X K, Liu G H, et al. Measurement of respiration amount of trees in Quercus liaotungensis community. Acta Ecol Sin (in Chinese), 1995, 15: 235–244Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schulze E D, Wirth C, Heimann M. Managing forests after Kyoto, Science, 2000, 289: 2058–2059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chapin F S III, Matson P A, Mooney H A. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jiang H. Study on biomass of Quercus liaotungensis and Betula dahurica forest in Dongling Mountain. In: Chen L Z, ed. Study on the Structure and Function of Warm Temperate Forest Ecosystems (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 1997, 104–115Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Feng Z W, Wang X K, Wu G. Biomass and Production of Chinese Forest Ecosystems (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 1999Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Son Y, Park I H, Yi M J, et al. Biomass, production and nutrient distribution of a natural oak forest in central Korea. Ecological Research, 2004, 19: 21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen L Z, Ren J K, Bao X C. Studies on the sociological characteristic and biomass of pine plantation on Xishan in Beijing. Acta Phytoecol Geobot Sin (in Chinese), 1984, 8: 173–181Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dixon R K, Brown S, Houghton R A, et al. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science, 1994, 263: 185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jobbagy E G, Jackson R B. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecol App, 2000, 10: 423–436Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wu H B, Guo Z T, Peng C H. Distribution and storage of soil organic carbon in China. Glob Biogeochemi Cycles, 2003, 17, 1048, doi:1029/2001GB001844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Foley J A. An equilibrium model of the terrestrial carbon budget. Tellus, Series B, 1995, 47: 310–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kawaguchi H. Carbon Cycle in Regeneration Processes of Deciduous Broadleaf Forests. Osaka: Osaka City Univ Press, 1987Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ryan M G, Hubbard R M, Pongracic S, et al. Foliage, fine-root, woody-tissue and stand respiration in Pinus radiata in relation to nitrogen status. Tree Phys, 1996, 16: 333–343Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raich J W, Schlesinger W H. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Tellus, Series B, 1992, 44: 81–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Luo Y, Medlyn B, Hui D, et al. Gross primary productivity in Duke Forest: Modeling synthesis of CO2 experiment and eddy-flux data. Ecol Appl, 2001, 11: 239–252Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang JingYun 
    • 1
  • Liu GuoHua 
    • 2
  • Zhu Biao 
    • 1
  • Wang XiaoKe 
    • 2
  • Liu ShaoHui 
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Ecology, College of Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of EducationPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Research Center for Eco-Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations