Advertisement

Der Diabetologe

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 433–441 | Cite as

Ernährungskonzepte für den alternden Menschen

Proteine und Mikronährstoffe im Fokus
  • B. Kochlik
  • T. Grune
  • D. WeberEmail author
Übersichten
  • 402 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Mit zunehmendem Alter kommt es zu physiologischen Veränderungen, wie der Abnahme der Muskel- und der Zunahme der Fettmasse, was zu einer Reduktion des Energiebedarfs bei älteren Menschen führt. Der Mikronährstoffbedarf bleibt jedoch weitestgehend konstant. Eine gesunde Ernährung und ein entsprechender Lebensstil sind relativ günstige und einfache Mittel, um die Gesundheit und Leistungsfähigkeit aufrechtzuerhalten.

Ernährungsempfehlungen für Senioren

Die adäquate Energie- und Nährstoffzufuhr zur Vermeidung von Über- und Untergewicht sowie von Nährstoffmängeln wird als präventiver Ansatz gegen Alterserkrankungen, im Speziellen Herzerkrankungen und neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, beschrieben. Um einem (übermäßigen) Verlust an Muskelmasse entgegenzuwirken, steht eine ausreichende Proteinzufuhr im Fokus. Energiearme und gleichzeitig nährstoffdichte Nahrungsmittel sind im höheren Alter zu bevorzugen. Hierzu zählen Obst, Gemüse, Vollkornprodukte, Hülsenfrüchte und Nüsse. Pflanzliche bzw. ungesättigte Fette und fettarme Milchprodukte sollten gesättigten Fetten und Vollfettmilchprodukten vorgezogen werden. Ein regelmäßiger Fischverzehr (1- bis 2‑mal pro Woche) wird empfohlen. Salz, Zucker, Eier, rotes Fleisch und dessen Produkte sollten nur in geringem Maße verzehrt werden. Diese Empfehlungen gelten auch für gesunde Erwachsene.

Schlüsselwörter

Gesunde Ernährung Bedarf an Nahrungsbestandteilen Senioren Herzkrankheiten Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen 

Dietary concepts for the elderly

A focus on proteins and micronutrients

Abstract

Background

Ageing is accompanied by physiological changes, such as a decrease in muscle mass and an increase in fat mass, both of which result in a reduction in energy requirements, whereas the micronutrient requirements remain the same. Health status and performance can easily be maintained by following a healthy diet and living a healthy lifestyle.

Dietary recommendations for the elderly

Avoiding overweight, underweight and nutrient deficiencies by means of an adequate energy and nutrient intake is one approach to preventing age-related diseases, in particular heart disease and neurodegenerative diseases. A sufficient intake of proteins may counteract the (elevated) loss of muscle mass. Low-energy and at the same time nutrient-dense foods (rich in micronutrients), such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, should be preferentially consumed by the elderly. Vegetable oils containing unsaturated fats and low-fat dairy products should be preferred to saturated fat and full-fat dairy products. The regular consumption of fish (1–2 times per week) is also recommended. Salt, sugar, eggs, red meat, and meat products should be consumed only in small amounts. These recommendations also apply to healthy adults.

Keywords

Healthy diet Nutritional requirements Senior citizens Heart diseases Neurodegenerative diseases 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

B. Kochlik, T. Grune und D. Weber geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Ashoori M, Saedisomeolia A (2014) Riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and oxidative stress: a review. Br J Nutr 111:1985–1991CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bauer J, Biolo G, Cederholm T et al (2013) Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. J Am Med Dir Assoc 14:542–559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chawla J, Kvarnberg D (2014) Hydrosoluble vitamins. Handb Clin Neurol 120:891–914CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Colman RJ, Anderson RM, Johnson SC et al (2009) Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys. Science 325:201–204CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dijsselbloem N, Vanden Berghe W, De Naeyer A et al (2004) Soy isoflavone phyto-pharmaceuticals in interleukin-6 affections. Multi-purpose nutraceuticals at the crossroad of hormone replacement, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory therapy. Biochem Pharmacol 68:1171–1185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Erusalimsky JD, Grillari J, Grune T et al (2016) In search of „Omics“-based biomarkers to predict risk of frailty and its consequences in older individuals: the FRAILOMIC initiative. Gerontology 62:182–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eurostat (2011) Demography Report 2010. Older, more numerous and diverse Europeans. In:European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, Unit D.4; Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union, Unit F.1. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/en/web/products-statistical-books/-/KE-ET-10-001. Zugegriffen: 10.08.2016Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fabian E, Bogner M, Kickinger A et al (2012) Vitamin status in elderly people in relation to the use of nutritional supplements. J Nutr Health Aging 16:206–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Franco OH, Karnik K, Osborne G et al (2009) Changing course in ageing research: the healthy ageing phenotype. Maturitas 63:13–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gibson GE, Hirsch JA, Cirio RT et al (2013) Abnormal thiamine-dependent processes in alzheimer’s disease. Lessons from diabetes. Mol Cell Neurosci 55:17–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Granado-Lorencio F, Blanco-Navarro I, Perez-Sacristan B et al (2013) Determinants of fat-soluble vitamin status in patients aged 65 years and over. Eur J Clin Nutr 67:1325–1327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grünheid ESH (2016) Bevölkerungsentwicklung 2016. Daten, Fakten, Trends zum demografischen Wandel. In: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, S 78Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hughes CF, Ward M, Hoey L et al (2013) Vitamin B12 and ageing: current issues and interaction with folate. Ann Clin Biochem 50:315–329CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kapahi P, Boulton ME, Kirkwood TB (1999) Positive correlation between mammalian life span and cellular resistance to stress. Free Radic Biol Med 26:495–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kiefte-De Jong JC, Mathers JC, Franco OH (2014) Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients. Proc Nutr Soc 73:249–259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kirkwood TB (2008) A systematic look at an old problem. Nature 451:644–647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Knoops KT, De Groot LC, Kromhout D et al (2004) Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project. JAMA 292:1433–1439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leslie W, Hankey C (2015) Aging, nutritional status and health. Healthcare (Basel) 3:648–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M et al (2006) Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006. A scientific statement from the american heart association nutrition committee. Circulation 114:82–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lopez-Otin C, Blasco MA, Partridge L et al (2013) The hallmarks of aging. Cell 153:1194–1217CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mangialasche F, Westman E, Kivipelto M et al (2013) Classification and prediction of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on MRI and plasma measures of alpha-/gamma-tocotrienols and gamma-tocopherol. J Intern Med 273:602–621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mathers JC (2013) Nutrition and ageing: knowledge, gaps and research priorities. Proc Nutr Soc 72:246–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mathers JC (2015) Impact of nutrition on the ageing process. Br J Nutr 113(Suppl):S18–S22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mattison JA, Roth GS, Beasley TM et al (2012) Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study. Nature 489:318–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paddon-Jones D, Rasmussen BB (2009) Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12:86–90CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pusceddu I, Farrell CJ, Di Pierro AM et al (2015) The role of telomeres and vitamin D in cellular aging and age-related diseases. Clin Chem Lab Med 53:1661–1678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ravussin E, Redman LM, Rochon J et al (2015) A 2‑year randomized controlled trial of human caloric restriction: feasibility and effects on predictors of health span and longevity. J Gerontol A 70:1097–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Redman LM, Ravussin E (2011) Caloric restriction in humans: impact on physiological, psychological, and behavioral outcomes. Antioxid Redox Signal 14:275–287CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Singh R, Kanwar SS, Sood PK et al (2011) Beneficial effects of folic acid on enhancement of memory and antioxidant status in aged rat brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol 31:83–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Song M, Fung TT, Hu FB et al (2016) Association of animal and plant protein intake with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. JAMA Intern Med 176(10):1453. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Touyarot K, Bonhomme D, Roux P et al (2013) A mid-life vitamin A supplementation prevents age-related spatial memory deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis alterations through CRABP-I. PLOS ONE 8:e72101CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Van Vliet S, Burd NA, Van Loon LJ (2015) The skeletal muscle anabolic response to plant- versus animal-based protein consumption. J Nutr 145:1981–1991CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Widmer RJ, Flammer AJ, Lerman LO et al (2015) The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 128:229–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Willcox DC, Willcox BJ, Todoriki H et al (2009) The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load. J Am Coll Nutr 28(Suppl):500 S–516 SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Willcox DC, Scapagnini G, Willcox BJ (2014) Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet. Mech Ageing Dev 136–137:148–162CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Woodside JV, Mcgrath AJ, Lyner N et al (2015) Carotenoids and health in older people. Maturitas 80:63–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Abteilung Molekulare ToxikologieDeutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-RehbrückeNuthetalDeutschland
  2. 2.NutriAct – Kompetenzcluster Ernährungsforschung Berlin-PotsdamNuthetalDeutschland
  3. 3.Deutsches Zentrum für Diabetesforschung (DZD)MünchenDeutschland
  4. 4.Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislauf-Forschung (DZHK)BerlinDeutschland

Personalised recommendations