Brain-to-brain interfaces (BtBIs) hold exciting potentials for direct communication between individual brains. However, technical challenges often limit their performance in rapid information transfer. Here, we demonstrate an optical brain-to-brain interface that transmits information regarding locomotor speed from one mouse to another and allows precise, real-time control of locomotion across animals with high information transfer rate. We found that the activity of the genetically identified neuromedin B (NMB) neurons within the nucleus incertus (NI) precisely predicts and critically controls locomotor speed. By optically recording Ca2+ signals from the NI of a “Master” mouse and converting them to patterned optogenetic stimulations of the NI of an “Avatar” mouse, the BtBI directed the Avatar mice to closely mimic the locomotion of their Masters with information transfer rate about two orders of magnitude higher than previous BtBIs. These results thus provide proof-of-concept that optical BtBIs can rapidly transmit neural information and control dynamic behaviors across individuals.
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We thank J. Snyder for comments and language polish. M.L. is supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015BAI08B02), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (91432114 and 91632302), and the Beijing Municipal Government.
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Lu, L., Wang, R. & Luo, M. An optical brain-to-brain interface supports rapid information transmission for precise locomotion control. Sci. China Life Sci. 63, 875–885 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1675-x
- brain-to-brain interface
- nucleus incertus
- fiber photometry
- support vector machine (SVM) classifier