Skip to main content

Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission

References

  1. CDC. (2020). 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Wuhan, China. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/novel-coronavirus-2019.html.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Cotten, M., Watson, S.J., Kellam, P., Al-Rabeeah, A.A., Makhdoom, H.Q., Assiri, A., Al-Tawfiq, J.A., Alhakeem, R.F., Madani, H., AlRabiah, F. A., et al. (2013). Transmission and evolution of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study. Lancet 382, 1993–2002.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hu, B., Zeng, L.P., Yang, X.L., Ge, X.Y., Zhang, W., Li, B., Xie, J.Z., Shen, X.R., Zhang, Y.Z., Wang, N., et al. (2017). Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus. PLoS Pathog 13, e1006698.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Li, F. (2012). Evidence for a common evolutionary origin of coronavirus spike protein receptor-binding subunits. J Virol 86, 2856–2858.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Li, F., Li, W., Farzan, M., and Harrison, S.C. (2005). Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor. Science 309, 1864–1868.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Maier, J.A., Martinez, C., Kasavajhala, K., Wickstrom, L., Hauser, K.E., and Simmerling, C. (2015). ff14SB: improving the accuracy of protein side chain and backbone parameters from ff99SB. J Chem Theor Comput 11, 3696–3713.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Normile, D. (2020). Mystery virus found in Wuhan resembles bat viruses but not SARS, Chinese scientist says. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/01/mystery-virus-found-wuhan-resembles-bat-viruses-not-sars-chinese-scientist-says.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  8. Raj, V.S., Mou, H., Smits, S.L., Dekkers, D.H.W., Müller, M.A., Dijkman, R., Muth, D., Demmers, J.A.A., Zaki, A., Fouchier, R.A.M., et al. (2013). Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC. Nature 495, 251–254.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Schwede, T., Kopp, J., Guex, N., and Peitsch, M.C. (2003). SWISSMODEL: an automated protein homology-modeling server. Nucleic Acids Res 31, 3381–3385.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Shu, Y., and McCauley, J. (2017). GISAID: Global initiative on sharing all influenza data—from vision to reality. EuroSurveillance 22, PMCID: PMC5388101.

    Google Scholar 

  11. WHO. (2020). Pneumonia of unknown cause in China. https://www.who.int/csr/don/05-january-2020-pneumonia-of-unkown-cause-china/en/.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Zhang, Y.Z. (2020). Initial genome release of novel coronavirus. http://virological.org/t/initial-genome-release-of-novel-coronavirus/319?from=groupmessage.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by grants from the National Science and Technology Major Projects for “Major New Drugs Innovation and Development” (directed by Dr. Song Li) (2018ZX09711003) of China, the National Key R&D Program (2018YFC0310600) of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31771412), and Special Fund for strategic bio-resources from Chinese Academy of Sciences (ZSYS-014). We also acknowledge the National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC; Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College; and Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital for their efforts in research and collecting the data and genome sequencing sharing. In addition, we acknowledge GISAID (https://www.gisaid.org/) for facilitating open data sharing.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Xuan Li, Wu Zhong or Pei Hao.

Ethics declarations

Compliance and ethics The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xu, X., Chen, P., Wang, J. et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci. China Life Sci. 63, 457–460 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5

Download citation