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Oxidative stress, nutritional antioxidants and beyond

Abstract

Free radical-induced oxidative stress contributes to the development of metabolic syndromes (Mets), including overweight, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory state. Most free radicals are generated from the mitochondrial electron transport chain; under physiological conditions, their levels are maintained by efficient antioxidant systems. A variety of transcription factors have been identified and characterized that control gene expression in response to oxidative stress status. Natural antioxidant compounds have been largely studied for their strong antioxidant capacities. This review discusses the recent progress in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in Mets and highlights the anti-Mets, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenols as potential nutritional therapy.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFD0501204, 2018YFD0500405), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2016326), the Science and Technology Projects of Hunan Province (2016SK3022, 2017RS3058), Key Project of Research and Development Plan of Hunan Province (2016NK2170), Science and Technology Projects of Changsha City (kq1801059), Youth Innovation Team Project of ISA, CAS (2017QNCXTD_ZCS), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KFZD-SW-219), and the Earmarked Fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-35).

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Correspondence to Fengna Li or Yulong Yin.

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Guo, Q., Li, F., Duan, Y. et al. Oxidative stress, nutritional antioxidants and beyond. Sci. China Life Sci. 63, 866–874 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-019-9591-5

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Keywords

  • reactive oxygen species
  • oxidative stress
  • mitochondrial dysfunction
  • signal transduction
  • nutritional antioxidant
  • polyphenols