Science China Life Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 4, pp 566–578 | Cite as

Comparative study on pattern recognition receptors in non-teleost ray-finned fishes and their evolutionary significance in primitive vertebrates

  • Yuming He
  • Hailin Pan
  • Guojie ZhangEmail author
  • Shunping HeEmail author
Research Paper


Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play important roles in innate immunity system and trigger the specific pathogen recognition by detecting the pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The main four PRRs components including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) were surveyed in the five genomes of non-teleost ray-finned fishes (NTR) including bichir (Polypterus senegalus), American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) and bowfin (Amia calva), representing all the four major basal groups of ray-finned fishes. The result indicates that all the four PRRs components have been well established in these NTR fishes. In the RLR-MAVS signal pathway, which detects intracellular RNA ligands to induce production of type I interferons (IFNs), the MAVS was lost in bichir particularly. Also, the essential genes of recognition of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) commonly in mammals like MD2, LY96 and LBP could not be identified in NTR fishes. It is speculated that TLR4 in NTR fishes may act as a cooperator with other PRRs and has a different pathway of recognizing LPS compared with that in mammals. In addition, we provide a survey of NLR and CLR in NTR fishes. The CLRs results suggest that Group V receptors are absent in fishes and Group II and VI receptors are well established in the early vertebrate evolution. Our comprehensive research of PRRs involving NTR fishes provides a new insight into PRR evolution in primitive vertebrate.


pattern recognition receptors (PRR) Toll-like receptors (TLR) RIG-I-like receptors (RLR) C-type lectin receptors (CLR) NOD-like receptors (NLR) innate immunity 


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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31372190).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary Figure 1 Structure of TLR5 proteins
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Supplementary Figure 2 Protein sequences alignment of TLR4
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Supplementary File 1. The TLRs protein sequences
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Supplementary Table 1 TLR and relevant signal genes queries list
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Supplementary Table 2 RLR genes queries list
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Supplementary Table 3 NLR genes queries list
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Supplementary Table 4 CLR genes queries list
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Supplementary Table 5 TLRs annotation results
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Supplementary Table 6 TLR4 protein sequences identity matrix
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Supplementary Table 7 TLR relevant signal genes annotation results
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Supplementary Table 8 RLRs and signal relevant genes annotation results
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Supplementary Table 9 NLR annotation results
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Supplementary Table 10 CLR annotation results


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© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BGI Education CenterUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesShenzhenChina
  2. 2.China National GenebankBGI-ShenzhenShenzhenChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina
  4. 4.Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, Universitetsparken 15University of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  5. 5.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina

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