FAR gene enables the brown planthopper to walk and jump on water in paddy field

Abstract

Many insects can live on water and survive being caught in the rain. Current research has shown that insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) confer desiccation resistance to maintain water balance. In this study, we identified a fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene (NlFAR) of the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens that is essential for the production of CHCs, and found that NlFAR is essential for N. lugens to walk and jump on water when moving from one rice plant to another in paddy fields. NlFAR was mainly expressed in the integument at the beginning of each molt. Cuticular surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and characterization of CHC extracts indicated that N. lugens with knockdown of NlFAR using RNA inference (RNAi) had a neater epicuticle layer and a significant decrease in CHC contents. Knockdown of NlFAR did not influence the desiccation resistance of N. lugens, but the dsNlFAR-treated insects were easily adhered and moistened by water droplets or their own secreted honeydew and unable to walk or jump on water. These results suggested that NlFAR is a crucial enzyme for CHC biosynthesis and cuticle waterproofing, but not for water retention of N. lugens, which may provide a potential strategy for pest management.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31630057 and 31471765). We thank Dr. Yong-Liang Fan and Nan Chen for their kind help in CHC analysis.

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Correspondence to Chuan-Xi Zhang.

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Compliance and ethics The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supporting Information

Figure S1 GC-MS analysis of CHCs.

Table S1 Primers used in this work

Table S2 NCBI accession numbers of sequences used for phylogenetic analysis

Table S3 Effect of RNAi suppression of NlFAR on the hydrocarbons of N. lugens

Video 1 Waterproofing experiment of dsNlFAR- and dsGFP-treated N. lugens

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Li, DT., Chen, X., Wang, XQ. et al. FAR gene enables the brown planthopper to walk and jump on water in paddy field. Sci. China Life Sci. 62, 1521–1531 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-018-9462-4

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Keywords

  • Nilaparvata lugens
  • fatty acyl-CoA reductase
  • cuticular hydrocarbon
  • waterproofing