Advertisement

Science in China Series B: Chemistry

, Volume 52, Issue 8, pp 1270–1280 | Cite as

Ozone source attribution during a severe photochemical smog episode in Beijing, China

  • XueSong Wang
  • JinLong Li
  • YuanHang ZhangEmail author
  • ShaoDong Xie
  • XiaoYan Tang
Article

Abstract

Beijing, the capital of China, frequently suffers from the high levels of ozone in summer. A 3-D regional chemical transport model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx), has been used to simulate a heavy O3 pollution episode in Beijing during June 26–July 2, 2000. Ozone Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT) and Geographic Ozone Assessment Technology (GOAT) were applied to quantify the contributions of the precursor emissions from different regions to O3 concentrations in Beijing, to identify the relative importance of different ways by which regional sources affected the O3 levels in Beijing urban areas, and to investigate the sensitivity of O3 formation to the precursors during the episode. The O3 pollution in Beijing showed a significant spatial distribution with strong regional contribution. The results suggested that the plume originating from Beijing urban areas greatly affected the O3 concentrations at the Dingling site, accounting for 55% of elevated O3 there, while O3 pollution in the Beijing urban areas resulted from both local emissions and those from Tianjin and the south of Hebei Province. Transport of O3 was responsible for about 70% of the regional O3 contribution to Beijing urban areas, while transport of O3 precursors accounted for the remainder. The formation of O3 was limited by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the urban areas of Beijing, while being more sensitive to NO x levels in the suburban and more remote areas. Therefore, it is necessary to consider a large number of factors, including impacts of emissions from different regions, the two modes of regional contribution as well as the sensitivity of O3 formation to precursors, in the design of emissions control strategies for O3 reduction in Beijing.

Keywords

Beijing ozone source apportionment emission 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Zhang Y H, Shao K S, Tang X Y, Li J L. The study of urban photochemical smog pollution in China (in Chinese). Acta Sci Nat Univ Pek, 1998, 34: 392–400Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang Y H, Zhu X L, Slanina S, Shao M, Zeng L M, Hu M, Bergin M, Salmon L. Aerosol pollution in some Chinese cities. Pure Appl Chem, 2004, 76: 1227–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shao M, Tang X Y, Zhang Y H, Li W J. City clusters in China: Air and surface water pollution. Front Ecol Environ, 2006: 4: 353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Streets D G, Fu J S, Jang C J, Hao J M, He K B, Tang X Y, Zhang Y H, Wang Z F, Li Z P, Zhang Q, Wang L T, Wang B Y, Yu C. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Atmos Environ, 2007: 41: 480–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pei C H. Air pollution control in Beijing. Conference on Strategic Approaches to Regional Air Quality Management in China, Beijing, 2005Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang Z F, Li L N, Wu Q Z, Gao C, Li X. Simulations of the impacts of regional transport on summer ozone levels over Beijing (in Chinese). Chin J Nature, 2008, 30: 194–198Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    NARSTO. An Assessment of Tropospheric Ozone Pollution: A North American Perspective. The NARSTO Synthesis Team, Palo Alto, CA, 2000Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tang X Y, Li J L, Li X. Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1990Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunker A M, Yarwood G, Ortmann J P, Wilson G M. Comparison of source apportionment and source sensitivity of ozone in a three-dimensional air quality model. Environ Sci Technol, 2002, 36: 2953–2964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ma J, Liu H, Hauglustaine D. Summertime tropospheric ozone over China simulated with a regional chemical transport model. 1: Model description and evaluation. J Geophys Res, 2002, 107: 4660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ma J, Zhou X, Hauglustaine D. Summertime tropospheric ozone over China simulated with a regional chemical transport model, 2: Source contributions and budget. J Geophys Res, 2002, 107: 4612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li J, Wang Z, Akimoto H, Yamaji K, Takigawa M, Pochanart P, Liu Y, Tanimoto H, Kanaya Y. Near-ground ozone source attributions and outflow in central eastern China during MTX2006. Atmos Chem Phys, 2008, 8: 7335–7351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yarwood G, Morris R E, Yocke M A, Hogo H, Chico T. Development of a methodology for source apportionment of ozone concentration estimates from a photochemical grid model, 89th AWMA Annual Meeting, Nashville, 1996Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ENVIRON. User’s guide to the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, CA, 2002Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cohan D S, Hakami A, Hu Y, Russell A G. Nonlinear response of ozone to emissions: source apportionment and sensitivity analysis. Environ Sci Technol, 2005, 39: 6739–6748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hakami A, Odman M T, Russell A G. High-order, direct sensitivity analysis of multidimensional air quality models. Environ Sci Technol, 2003, 37: 2442–2452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang X S, Li J L. The contribution of anthropogenic hydrocarbons to ozone formation in Beijing areas (in Chinese). China Environ Sci, 2002, 22: 501–505Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang X S, Li J L. A case study of ozone source apportionment in Beijing (in Chinese). Acta Sci Nat Univ Pek, 2003, 39: 244–253Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jiang W H, Ma J Z. Implementation of NOx and O3 key source tracing method in a regional chemical transport model (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sinica, 2006, 64: 284–292Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang Y H, Shao M, Yu K H. Vehicle emissions, environmental impact and control: A case study of Guangzhou. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2004Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tang X Y, Xie S D. Study on causes and sources of air pollution in Beijing. Beijing: Peking University, 2002Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grey M W, Whitten G Z, Killus J P, Dodge M C. A photochemical kinetics mechanism for urban and regional scale computer modeling. J Geophys Res, 1989, 94: 12925–12956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grell G A, Dudhia J, Stanffer D R. A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Technical Note: NCAR/TN-398+STR, 1994Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hu Y T, Zhang Y H, Xie S D, Zeng L M. Development of biogenic VOC emissions inventory with high temporal and spatial resolution (in Chinese). Environ Sci, 2001, 22: 1–6Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sillman S. The use of NOy, H2O2, and HNO3 as indicators for ozone-NOx-hydrocarbons sensitivity in urban locations. J Geophys Res, 1995, 100: 14175–14188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kumar N, Lurmann F W. Peer review of ENVIRON’s Ozone Source Apportionment Technology and the CAMx air quality models. Revised final report, STI-996203-1732-RFR, Prepared for Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Division of Air Pollution Control, Columbus, 1997Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chou C C K, Liu S C, Lin C Y, Shiu C J, Chang K H. The trend of surface ozone in Taipei, Taiwan, and its causes: Implications for ozone control strategies. Atmos Environ, 2006, 40: 3898–3908CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • XueSong Wang
    • 1
  • JinLong Li
    • 1
  • YuanHang Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • ShaoDong Xie
    • 1
  • XiaoYan Tang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringPeking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations