Effects of mobile-app learning diaries vs online training on specific self-regulated learning components

Abstract

Self-regulated learning (SRL) is associated with increased academic achievement and improved learning outcomes for students. Thus, it is import to find ways to improve SRL, such as through training. Face-to-face training, discipline-dependent training, and paper-and-pencil diaries are limited in the number of students they can reach. The current randomised control study implemented discipline-independent online training and novel mobile-app based diaries and tested SRL motivation and perceived strategy use in 73 University students from mixed disciplines and study mode. Results showed that participants in the combined condition (training with diaries) improved more than other conditions. Specifically, they improved on SRL knowledge, metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies (elaboration, organisation and critical thinking), and resources management strategies (time-management and effort regulation). The present study extends previous findings, showing that positive effects can be found for SRL when a discipline-independent approach is used coupled with online training and a mobile-app based daily diary.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Alonso-Mencía, M. E., Alario-Hoyos, C., Maldonado-Mahauad, J., Estévez-Ayres, I., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., & Kloos, C. D. (2019). Self-regulated learning in MOOCs: Lessons learned from a literature review. Educational Review. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2019.1566208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bail, F. T., Zhang, S., & Tachiyama, G. T. (2008). Effects of a self-regulated learning course on the academic performance and graduation rate of college students in an academic support program. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 39(1), 54–73.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Becker, L. L. (2013). Self-regulated learning interventions in the introductory accounting course: An empirical study. Issues in Accounting Education, 28(3), 435–460.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bellhauser, H., Losch, T., Winter, C., & Schmitz, B. (2016). Applying a web-based training to foster self-regulated learning: Effects of an intervention for large numbers of participants. Internet and Higher Education, 31, 87–100.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Broadbent, J. (2017). Comparing online and blended learner's self-regulated learning strategies and academic performance. Internet and Higher Education, 33, 24–32.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Broadbent, J., Panadero, E., Lodge, J. M., & de Barba, P. (2014). Technologies to enhance self-regulated learning in online and computer mediated learning environments. In M. J. Bishop, J. Elen, E. Boling, & V. Svihla (Eds.), Handbook of research in educational communications and technology. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Broadbent, J., & Poon, W. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning strategies & academic achievement in online higher education learning environments: A systematic review. Internet and Higher Education, 27, 1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Cleary, T. J., Platten, P., & Nelson, A. (2008). Effectiveness of the self-regulation empowerment program with urban high school students. (Cover story). Journal of Advanced Academics, 20(1), 70–107.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Routledge Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Deakin University Strategic Intelligence and Planning Unit. (2018). Deakin University Statistics Summary 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://www.deakin.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/2018048/Deakin-stats_2018.pdf.

  11. Dignath, C., Buettner, G., & Langfeldt, H. P. (2008). How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively?: A meta-analysis on self-regulation training programmes. Educational Research Review, 3(2), 101–129.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Dignath, C., & Büttner, G. (2008). Components of fostering self-regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition and Learning, 3(3), 231–264.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Dignath-van Ewijk, C., Fabriz, S., & Büttner, G. (2015). Fostering self-regulated learning among students by means of an electronic learning diary: A training experiment. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 14(1), 77.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Dörrenbacher, L., & Perels, F. (2016). More is more? Evaluation of interventions to foster self-regulated learning in college. International Journal of Educational Research, 78, 50–65.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Duncan, T. G., & McKeachie, W. J. (2005). The making of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational Psychologist, 40(2), 117–128.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Fabriz, S., Dignath-van Ewijk, C., Poarch, G., & Büttner, G. (2014). Fostering self-monitoring of university students by means of a standardized learning journal—A longitudinal study with process analyses. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 29(2), 239–255.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Lewis, J. P., & Litchfield, B. C. (2011). Effects of self-regulated learning strategies on preservice teachers in an educational technology course. Education, 132, 455–464.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Loeffler, S. N., Bohner, A., Stumpp, J., Limberger, M. F., & Gidion, G. (2019). Investigating and fostering self-regulated learning in higher education using interactive ambulatory assessment. Learning and Individual Differences, 71, 43–57.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Olakanmia, E. E., & Gumboa, M. T. (2017). The effects of self-regulated learning training on students’ metacognition and achievement in chemistry. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 25(2), 34–48.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Panadero, E. (2017). A review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 422.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Panadero, E., Klug, J., & Järvelä, S. (2016). Third wave of measurement in the self-regulated learning field: When measurement and intervention come hand in hand. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 60(6), 723–735.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Pintrich, P. R., Garcia, T., McKeachie, W. J., & Smith, D. A. (1991). Motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Ann Arbor: Regents of the University of Michigan.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Reeves, T. D., & Stich, A. E. (2011). Tackling suboptimal bachelor’s degree completion rates through training in self-regulated learning (SRL). Innovative Higher Education, 36(1), 3–17.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Richardson, B. (2015). Instant Survey (iOS Version 1.3; Android Version 1.1) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved June 2, 2019, from https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/instant-survey/id955226674?mt=8 or https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=au.edu.deakin.psychology.surveyframework.

  26. Richardson, M., Abraham, C., & Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 353.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Schmitz, B., & Perels, F. (2011). Self-monitoring of self-regulation during math homework behaviour using standardized diaries. Metacognition and Learning, 6(3), 255–273.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Schmitz, B., & Wiese, B. S. (2006). New perspectives for the evaluation of training sessions in self-regulated learning: Time-series analyses of diary data. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(1), 64–96.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Zimmerman, B. J. (1986). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocesses? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11(4), 307–313.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, M. Zeidner, M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Thank you to Anukesh Sharma and Michelle Benstead for their help with data collection.

Funding

First author received funding from the Centre for Research in Assessment and Digital Learning (CRADLE) at Deakin University, Australia. Second author funded by Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad) through personal grant under Ramón y Cajal framework reference RYC-2013-13469 and by National R+D Call (Excelencia) reference EDU2016-79714-P.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jaclyn Broadbent.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All the authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix A: Examples from declarative knowledge test

Example Question 1:

When a student student perceives him or herself to be participating in a task for reasons such as challenge, curiosity, mastery this is known as:

  1. 1.

    Extrinsic motivation

  2. 2.

    Intrinsic motivation

  3. 3.

    Task value

  4. 4.

    Mastery self-efficacy

Example Question 2:

Which of the following is an example of a metacognitive strategy:

  1. 1.

    Matt makes sure he keep up with the weekly readings and assignments in his course.

  2. 2.

    Matt works hard to do well in his class even if he doesn’t like what they are doing.

  3. 3.

    Matt tries to think through a topic and decide what he is supposed to learn from it rather than just reading it over when studying.

  4. 4.

    Matt tries to play around with ideas of his own related to what he is learning in his course.

Example Question 3:

The first step self-regulated learners typically do when faced with a learning task is.

  1. 1.

    They begin by analysing the task, establishing goals, interpreting task requirements in terms of their current knowledge and beliefs and working out strategic plans to reach your goals

  2. 2.

    They monitor their progress toward goals, thereby generating internal feedback about the success of their efforts

  3. 3.

    They set task-specific goals, which they use us a basis for selecting, adapting, and possibly inventing strategies that will help them accomplish their objectives

  4. 4.

    They use motivational strategies to keep themselves on task when they become discouraged or encounter difficulties

Appendix 2: Example questions from mobile-app based diary

Example question BEFORE/AFTER study session about affect:

How do you feel at the moment?

  • Active: 1-very slightly or not at all, 2-a little, 3-moderately, 4-quite a bit, 5-extremely.

  • Determined: 1-very slightly or not at all, 2-a little, 3-moderately, 4-quite a bit, 5-extremely.

  • Distressed: 1-very slightly or not at all, 2-a little, 3-moderately, 4-quite a bit, 5-extremely.

  • Nervous: 1-very slightly or not at all, 2-a little, 3-moderately, 4-quite a bit, 5-extremely.

Example question BEFORE study session about motivation

Today, I am studying because I find the topic very interesting: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree.

Example question BEFORE study session about learning strategies

Today, I have made a time schedule: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree.

Example question AFTER study session about motivation

Today, I said to myself: I am able to do it: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree.

Example question AFTER study session about learning strategies

Today, I put much effort into my work: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree.

Appendix 3: Structure of the online SRL training program

Session Topics Content and activities
Traning session 1 Self-regulated learning SRL overview
Components of SRL
Three Phases of SRL
Goal setting and barriers What is your long-term goal, midterm goal, SMART goal
BEST barriers
Barriers and Strategies
Time management Overview
Skills and planning
Time Management style self-assessment quiz
Time management planner
Traning session 2 Distractions and procrastination Overview
Distraction Apps
Reflect and identify distractors
Learning strategies Critical thinking
Organisation
Elaboration
Mnemonics
Mind palace
Paraphrasing
Note making
Comparisons
Self-questioning
Resource management
Peer learning
Help seeking
Metacognitive strategies
Traning session 3 Dealing with failure Attribution theory
Self-serving bias
Fundamental attribution error
Frame of reference
Motivation Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation
Strategies to increase motivation
Self-efficacy What is self-efficacy
Ways to develop self-efficacy beliefs
Self-reflection Reflection
Revision of SRL

SRL self-regulated learning; SMART specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and timely; BEST behaviour, emotion, situation, thoughts.

Appendix 4: Examples from online SRL training program

Below are a few examples from the training sessions. The training was split into sessions and then designed as mini-chapters within a session. Chapters contained micro-learnings in the form of written and video content, activities, reflective tasks and quizzes.

figurea

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Broadbent, J., Panadero, E. & Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M. Effects of mobile-app learning diaries vs online training on specific self-regulated learning components. Education Tech Research Dev 68, 2351–2372 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09781-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Self-regulated learning
  • Online training
  • Mobile app-based diaries
  • Experience sampling
  • Online learning