Skip to main content

Factors that influence TPACK adoption by teacher educators in the US

Abstract

This study presents the results of a survey of 842 teacher educators at 541 different institutions across the 50 US states that examined the state and direction of technology integration preparation in accredited teacher education programs. Using both descriptive statistics and regression analysis the study provides a general description of the characteristics of these teacher educators, their Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) adoption, and the relationships between individual and institutional factors and their TPACK adoption. The results of the research show that TPACK adoption is generally low among these teacher educators and that there are multiple personal and institutional factors that influence TPACK adoption. The participants had a significant amount of both K12 and teacher education experience and had high levels of comfort with their technological knowledge. Factors that were shown to influence TPACK adoption included the highest degree offered at their institution, their self-rated TPACK score, and their individual adoption of the International Society for Teaching and Education (ISTE) standards. The results address implications for teacher educator professional development and program accreditation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Adamy, P., & Heinecke, W. (2005). The influence of organizational culture on technology integration in teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,13(2), 233–255.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allison, P. (2000). COMBCHI macro. Retrieved from http://www.ssc.upenn.edu/~allison/combchi.sas.

  • Alqurashi, E., Gokbel, E. N., & Carbonara, D. (2017). Teachers’ knowledge in content, pedagogy and technology integration: A comparative analysis between teachers in Saudi Arabia and United States. British Journal of Educational Technology,48(6), 1414–1426. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baran, E., Bilici, S., Sari, A., & Tondeur, J. (2017). Investigating the impact of teacher education strategies on preservice teachers’ TPACK. British Journal of Educational Technology,2, 5. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12565.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bates, T., Swennen, A., & Jones, K. (Eds.). (2011). The professional development of teacher educators. London, England: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becuwe, H., Roblin, N., Tondeur, J., Thys, J., Castelein, E., & Voogt, J. (2017). Conditions for the successful implementation of teacher educator design teams for ICT integration: A Delphi study. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology,33(2), 159–172. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2789.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blackwell, J., & Yost, N. (2013). Technology in the classroom: Teacher education programs and technology: Preparing teacher candidates for working with p-8 students. Childhood Education,89(5), 325–327. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2013.830918.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Borko, H., Liston, D., & Whitcomb, J. (2007). Genres of empirical research in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education,58(1), 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487106296220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Broady, T., Chan, A., & Caputi, P. (2008). Comparison of older and younger adults’ attitudes towards and abilities with computers: Implications for training and learning. British Journal of Educational Technology,41(3), 473–485. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00914.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bucci, T., Cherup, S., & Cunningham, A. (2003). ISTE standards in teacher education: A collection of practical examples. Teacher Educator,39(2), 95–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/08878730309555333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bullough, R. (2005). Being and becoming a mentor: School-based teacher educators and teacher educator identity. Teaching and Teacher Education,21(2), 43–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.12.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chai, C., Koh, J., & Tsai, C. (2013). A review of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Educational Technology & Society,16(2), 31–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen, R. (2010). Investigating models for preservice teachers’ use of technology to support student-centered learning. Computers & Education,55(1), 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.11.015.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chesley, G., & Jordan, J. (2012). What’s missing from teacher prep. Educational Leadership,69(8), 41–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chuang, H., Weng, C., & Huang, F. (2015). A structure equation model among factors of teachers’ technology integration practice and their TPCK. Computers & Education,86, 182–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cochran, K. F., King, R. A., & DeRuiter, J. A. (1991). Pedagogical content knowledge: A tentative model for teacher preparation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.

  • Cochran-Smith, M. (2003). Learning and unlearning: The education of teacher educators. Teaching and Teacher Education.,19(1), 5–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(02)00091-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, P. (1999). Relationships of knowledge and practice: Teacher learning communities. Review of Educational Research,24, 249–305. https://doi.org/10.2307/1167272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. L. (2004). Practitioner inquiry, knowledge, and university culture. In J. Loughran, M. L. Hamilton, V. K. LaBoskey, & T. Russell (Eds.), International handbook of self-study of teaching and teacher education practices (pp. 601–649). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cochran-Smith, M., & Zeichner, K. (Eds.). (2005). Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. (2015). CAEP accreditation standards. Washington, DC: Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. Retrieved from http://www.caepnet.org/~/media/Files/caep/standards/final-board-amended-20150612.pdf?la=en.

  • Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. (2016). CAEP accreditation handbook. Washington, DC: Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. Retrieved from http://caepnet.org/~/media/CAEP%20Accreditation%20Handbook_March%202016.pdf?la=en.

  • Davey, R. (2013). The professional identity of teacher educators: Career on the cusp?. London: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Demirdöğen, B., Aydın, S., & Tarkın, A. (2015). Looking at the mirror: A self-study of science teacher educators’ PCK for teaching teachers. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education,11, 189–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M. (2008). Internet, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: The tailored design method. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dinkelman, T. (2011). Forming a teacher educator identity: Uncertain standards, practice and relationships. Journal of Education for Teaching,37(3), 309–323. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2011.588020.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dinkelman, T., Margolis, J., & Sikkenga, K. (2006). From teacher to teacher educator: Experiences, expectations and expatriation. Studying Teacher Education: A Journal of Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices,2(1), 5–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/17425960600983155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doering, A., Veletsianos, G., Scharber, C., & Miller, C. (2009). Using the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge framework to design online learning environments and professional development. Journal of Educational Computing Research,41(3), 319–346. https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.41.3.d.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dong, Y., Chai, C., Sang, G., Koh, J., & Tsai, C. (2015). Exploring the profiles and interplays of pre-service and in-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in China. Journal of Educational Technology & Society,18(1), 158–169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Downes, T. (1993). Student-teachers’ experience in using computers during teaching practice. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,9(1), 17–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.1993.tb00260.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doyle, H., & Reading, C. (2013). Resistance to advocacy: Pre-service teachers recognizing the potential of curriculum-based virtual worlds for TPACK-framed science teaching. Australian Educational Computing, Special Edition: Teaching Teachers for the Future Project,27(3), 101–108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drent, M., & Meelissen, M. (2008). Which factors obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use ICT innovatively? Computers & Education,51(1), 187–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2007.05.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dunn, S., & Ridgway, J. (1991a). Computer use during primary school teaching practice: A survey. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,7(1), 7–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.1991.tb00220.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dunn, S., & Ridgway, J. (1991b). Naked into the world: IT experiences on a final primary school teaching practice: A second survey. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,7(3), 229–240. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.1991.tb00254.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dusick, D. M. (1998). What social cognitive factors influence faculty members’ use of computers for teaching? A literature review. Journal of Research on Computing in Education,31(2), 123–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elwood, K., & Savenye, W. (2015). A review of technology integration models utilized by pre-service teacher educator programs. In D. Slykhuis & G. Marks (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 2295–2300). Chesapeake: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ertmer, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education.,42(3), 255–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2010.10782551.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Figg, C. & Jaipal-Jamani, K. (2017). Developing TPACK in higher education faculty: An elearning mentor strategy. In P. Resta & S. Smith (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 2319–2323). Austin, TX, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/177525/.

  • Foulger, T., Graziano, K., Schmidt-Crawford, D., & Slykhuis, D. (2017). Teacher educator technology competencies. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,25(4), 413–448.

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedman, A., Bolick, C., Berson, M., & Porfeli, E. (2009). National educational technology standards and technology beliefs and practices of social studies faculty: Results from a seven-year longitudinal study. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education,9(4), 476–487.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gallagher, T., Griffin, S., Parker, D., Kitchen, J., & Figg, C. (2011). Establishing and sustaining teacher educator professional development in a self-study community of practice: Pre-tenure teacher educators developing professionally. Teaching and Teacher Education,27(5), 880–890.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goktas, Y., Yildirim, S., & Yildirim, Z. (2009). Main barriers and possible enablers of ICTs integration into pre-service teacher education programs. Educational Technology and Society,12(1), 193–204.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofer, M., & Grandgenett, N. (2012). TPACK development in teacher education: A longitudinal study of preservice teachers in a secondary MA Ed. program. Journal of Research on Technology in Education,45(1), 83–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2012.10782598.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horton, N. J., Lipsitz, S. R., & Parzen, M. (2003). A potential for bias when rounding in multiple imputation. The American Statistician,57(4), 229–232. https://doi.org/10.1198/0003130032314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • International Society for Technology in Education (2017). ISTE standards for educators. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/standards/for-educators.

  • International Society of Technology in Education. (2016). ISTE-CAEP standards for teacher educators. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/standards-in-action/caep.

  • International Society for Technology in Education. (n.d.-a.). Essential conditions. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/essential-conditions.

  • International Society for Technology in Education (n.d.-b.). ISTE standards. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/standards.

  • Izadinia, M. (2014). Teacher educators’ identity: A review of literature. European Journal of Teacher Education,37(4), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2014.947025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jang, S., & Tsai, M. (2012). Exploring the TPACK of Taiwanese elementary mathematics and science teachers with respect to use of interactive whiteboards. Computers & Education,59(2), 327–338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.02.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Judge, S., & O’Bannon, B. (2008). Faculty integration of technology in teacher preparation: Outcomes of a development model. Technology, Pedagogy and Education,17(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759390701847435.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaufman, K. (2015). Information communication technology: Challenges & some prospects from preservice education to the classroom. Mid-Atlantic Education Review,2, 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kay, R. (2006). Evaluating strategies used to incorporate technology into education: A review of the literature. Journal of Research on Technology in Education,38(4), 383–408.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kazu, I., & Erten, P. (2014). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge self-efficacies. Journal of Education and Training Studies,2(2), 126–144. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v2i2.261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. (2012). Offering preservice teachers field experiences in K-12 online learning: A national survey of teacher education programs. Journal of Teacher Education,63(3), 185–200. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487111433651.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kleiner, B., Thomas, N., & Lewis, L. (2007). Educational technology in teacher education programs for initial licensure (NCES 2008–040). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koch, A., Heo, M., & Kush, J. (2012). Technology integration into pre-service teacher training. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education,8(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.4018/jicte.2012010101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research,32(2), 131–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.), Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 3–29). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koh, J., Chai, C., & Tay, L. (2014). TPACK-in-Action: Unpacking the contextual influences of teachers’ construction of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Computers & Education,78, 20–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koh, J., Chai, C., & Tsai, C. (2013). Examining practicing teachers’ perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) pathways: A structural equation modeling approach. Instructional Science,41(4), 793–809.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Korthagen, F. (2000). Teacher educators: From neglected group to spearhead in the development of education. In G. M. Willems, J. Stakenborg, & W. Veugelers (Eds.), Trends in Dutch Teacher Education (pp. 35–48). Leuven-Apeldoorn: Garant.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koster, B. (2002). Teacher educators under the microscope: The development of a professional profile for teacher educators and the effects of their examination of this profile on their self-diagnosis. (Doctoral thesis). WCC, Utrecht University, Utrecht.

  • Koster, B., Brekelmans, M., Korthagen, F. A., & Wubbels, T. (2005). Quality requirements for teacher educators. Teaching and Teacher Education,21(2), 157–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.12.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krumsvik, R. (2008). Situated learning and digital competence. Education and Information Technology,4(13), 279–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krumsvik, R. (2014). Teacher educators’ digital competence. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research,58(3), 269–280. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2012.726273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2012). How should the higher education workforce adapt to advancements in technology for teaching and learning? The Internet and Higher Education,15(4), 247–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.12.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lainier, J., & Little, J. (1986). Research on teacher education. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 527–569). New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, M., & Tsai, C. (2010). Exploring teachers’ perceived self-efficacy and technological pedagogical content knowledge with respect to educational use of the world wide web. Instructional Science,38(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-008-9075-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liang, J., Chai, C., Koh, J., Yang, C., & Tsai, C. (2013). Surveying in-service preschool teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.41.3.d.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liaw, S., Hatala, M., & Huang, H. (2010). Investigating acceptance toward mobile learning to assist individual knowledge management: Based on activity theory approach. Computers & Education,54(2), 446–454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.029.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, Q., Zhang, S., & Wang, Q. (2015). Surveying Chinese in-service K12 teachers’ technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research,53(1), 55–74. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633115585929.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loughran, J. (2014). Professionally developing as a teacher educator. Journal of Teacher Education.,65(4), 271–283. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487114533386.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu, L., & Lei, J. (2012). Using live dual modeling to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education,29(1), 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/21532974.2012.10784699.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lunenberg, M., Dengerink, J., & Korthagen, F. (2014). The professional teacher educator: Roles, behaviour, and professional development of teacher educators. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Matthew, K., Stephens, E., Callaway, R., Letendre, C., & Kimbell-Lopez, K. (2002). Adoption of information communication technology by teacher educators: One-on-one coaching. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education,11(1), 45–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759390200200122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record,108(6), 1017–1054. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murray, J., & Kosnik, C. (2011). Academic work and identities in teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching,37(3), 243–246. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2011.587982.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murray, J., & Male, T. (2005). Becoming a teacher educator: Evidence from the field. Teaching and Teacher Education,21(2), 125–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.12.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, M. J. (2017). The role of a mentor teacher’s TPACK in prospective preservice teachers’ intentions to integrate technology. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,25(4), 449–473.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, M. J., Voithofer, R., & Cheng, S.-L. (2019). Mediating factors that influence the technology integration practices of teacher educators. Computers & Education,128, 330–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.09.023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Novak, D., & Knowles, J. (1991). Beginning elementary teachers’ use of computers in classroom instruction. Action in Teacher Education,8(2), 43–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/0962029940030206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nulty, D. (2008). The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys: What can be done? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education,33(3), 301–314. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930701293231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers,32(3), 396–402. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03200807.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oliver, R. (1994). Factors influencing beginning teachers’ uptake of computers. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,2(1), 71–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A., Brush, T., Strycker, J., Gronseth, S., Roman, T., Abaci, S., et al. (2012). Preparation versus practice: How do teacher education programs and practicing teachers align in their use of technology to support teaching and learning. Computers & Education,59(2), 399–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.01.014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pamuk, S., Ergun, M., Cakir, R., Yilmaz, H. B., & Ayas, C. (2013). Exploring relationships among TPACK components and development of the TPACK instrument. Education and Information Technologies,20(2), 241–263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-013-9278-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pasternak, D., Hallman, H., Caughlan, S., Renzi, L., Rush, L., & Meineke, H. (2016). Learning/teaching technology in English teacher education: Findings from a national study. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education,16(4), 373–387.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peeraer, J., & Van Petegem, P. (2012). The limits of programmed professional development on integration of information and communication technology in education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology,28(6), 1039–1056. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.809.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Phuong, T., Cole, S., & Zarestky, J. (2018). A systematic literature review of faculty development for teacher educators. Higher Education Research & Development,37(2), 373–389. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2017.1351423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, D., Baran, E., Thompson, A., Mishra, P., Koehler, M., & Shin, T. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): The development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education,42(2), 123–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2009.10782544.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher,15(2), 4–14. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review,57(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.57.1.j463w79r56455411.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, K. (2005). Teacher educators’ expertise: What do novice teachers and teacher educators say? Teaching and Teacher Education,21(2), 177–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.12.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snoek, M., Swennen, A., & van der Klink, M. (2011). The quality of teacher educators in the European policy debate: Actions and measures to improve the professionalism of teacher educators. Professional Development of Education,37(5), 651–664. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2011.616095.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, J. P. (2012). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stokes-Beverly, C., & Simoy, I. (2016). Advancing educational technology in teacher preparation: Policy brief. Washington, DC: US Department of Education Office of Educational Technology. Retrieved from https://tech.ed.gov/teacherprep/.

  • Swennen, A., Jones, K., & Volman, M. (2010). Teacher educators: Their identities, sub-identities and implications for professional development. Professional Development in Education,36(1–2), 131–148. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415250903457893.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, L. (1994). NCATE releases new unit accreditation guidelines: Standards for technology are included. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education,11(1), 5–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, A., Schmidt, D., & Hadjiyianni, E. (1995). A three-year program to infuse technology throughout a teacher education program. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,3(1), 13–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Ertmer, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2017). Understanding the relationship between teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and technology use in education: A systematic review of qualitative evidence. Educational Technology Research and Development,65(3), 555–575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-016-9481-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers & Education,59(1), 134–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.10.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Siddiq, F., & Scherer, R. (2016). Time for a new approach to prepare future teachers for educational technology use: Its meaning and measurement. Computers & Education,94, 134–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • US Department of Education. (2018). Characteristics of Public School Teachers Who Completed Alternative Route to Certification Programs. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_tlc.asp.

  • Vaughan, M., Beers, C., & Burnaford, G. (2015). The impact of iPads on teacher educator practice: A collaborative professional development initiative. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning,11(1), 21–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weiner, L. (2007). A lethal threat to US teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education,58(4), 274–286. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487107305603.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Western Governors University. (2018). Online Education Degrees. Retrieved from https://www.wgu.edu/online-teaching-degrees.html.

  • Wiebe, J., & Taylor, H. (1997). What should teachers know about technology? A revised look at the ISTE foundations. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education,13(4), 5–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/10402454.1997.10784319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, J. (2014). Teacher educator professional learning in the third space: Implications for identity and practice. Journal of Teacher Education,65(4), 315–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487114533128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, J., Ritter, J., & Bullock, S. (2012). Understanding the complexity of becoming a teacher educator: Experience, belonging, and practice within a professional learning community. Studying Teacher Education,8(3), 245–260. https://doi.org/10.1080/17425964.2012.719130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, E. (2013). E-learning and life-long learning: A descriptive case study from a teacher educator’s perspective: 1995-2013. In M. Ciussi & M. Augier (Eds.), Proceedings of the European Conference on E-learning (pp. 531–537). UK: Academic Conferences International Limited.

  • Zeichner, K. (2002). Beyond traditional structures of student teaching. Teacher Education Quarterly,29(2), 59–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zeichner, K. (2005). Becoming a teacher educator: A personal perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education,21(2), 117–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.12.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeichner, K., & Peña-Sandoval, C. (2015). Venture philanthropy and teacher education policy in the US: The role of the new schools venture fund. Teachers College Record,117(5), 1–44.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

Funding was funded by Ohio State University College of Education and Human Ecology (Grant: Seed Grant).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rick Voithofer.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Voithofer, R., Nelson, M.J., Han, G. et al. Factors that influence TPACK adoption by teacher educators in the US. Education Tech Research Dev 67, 1427–1453 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-019-09652-9

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-019-09652-9

Keywords

  • Teacher educators
  • TPACK
  • Technology integration
  • Teacher education