Skip to main content


Log in

Effects of the flipped classroom instructional strategy on students’ learning outcomes: a meta-analysis

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Educational Technology Research and Development Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The flipped classroom instructional strategy is thought to be a good way to structure learning experiences to improve student learning outcomes. Many studies have been conducted to examine the effects of flipped classroom on student learning outcomes compared to the traditional classroom, but the results were inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the overall effect of the flipped classroom instructional strategy on student learning outcomes in relation to a set of moderating variables including student levels, publication types, study durations, and subject area. This meta-analysis examined studies that compared classrooms that used the flipped classroom instructional strategy and classrooms that did not. Seventeen databases were searched to identify literature meeting our inclusion criteria and resulted in 55 publications with 115 effect size comparisons on cognitive student learning outcomes published between 2000 and 2016. Overall, we found a statistically significant effect size (g = 0.193; p < .001; with a 95% confidence interval of 0.113–0.274) in favor of the flipped classroom instructional strategy. The effect size data were normally distributed and exhibited statistically significant heterogeneity. The effect sizes were significantly moderated by subject area such as mathematics, science, social sciences, engineering, arts and humanities, health, and business. No evidence of publication bias was detected in these data. A full discussion of the findings and implications for educational practice and research were provided.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others


References marked with an asterisk indicate studies that are included in the meta-analysis

  • *Albert, M., & Beatty, B. J. (2014). Flipping the classroom applications to curriculum redesign for an introduction to management course: Impact on grades. Journal of Education for Business, 89(8), 419–424.

  • Alexander, P. A., Schallert, D. L., & Reynolds, R. E. (2009). What is learning anyway? A topographical perspective considered. Educational Psychologist, 44(3), 176–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker, J. W. (2000a). The “classroom flip”: Using web course management tools to become the guide by the side. Paper presented at the 11th international conference on College Teaching and Learning, Jacksonville, FL.

  • Baker, J. W. (2000b). The classroom flip: Becoming the guide by the side. Paper presented at CCCU technology conference, Azusa, CA. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • Baker, J. W. (2003). The “classroom flip”: A model for pedagogically effective use of a course management system. Paper presented at Southwestern Ohio Council for Higher Education Teaching and Technology Workshop. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • Becker, B. J. (2000). Multivariate meta-analysis. In H. E. A. Tinsley & S. D. Brown (Eds.), Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling (pp. 499–525). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012a). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. Washington, DC: Internal Society for Technology in Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012b). Before you flip, consider this. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(2), 25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Schmid, R. F., Tamim, R. M., & Abrami, P. C. (2014). A meta-analysis of blended learning and technology use in higher education: From the general to the applied. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 26(1), 87–122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Bishop, J. L. (2013). A controlled study of the flipped classroom with numerical methods for engineers. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1492991096).

  • Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. In ASEE national conference proceedings, Atlanta, GA (Vol. 30, No. 9, pp. 1–18). Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • Bland, L. (2006). Applying flip/inverted classroom model in electrical engineering to establish life-long learning. Paper presented at 2006 ASEE annual conference & exposition: Excellence in education, Chicago, IL.

  • Bonwell, C., & Eison, J. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. (ASHE-ERIC higher education report no. 1). Washington, DC: George Washington University.

  • Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. R. (2010). A basic introduction to fixed-effect and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Research Synthesis Methods, 1(2), 97–111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Braun, I., Ritter, S., & Vasko, M. (2014). Inverted classroom by topic—A study in mathematics for electrical engineering students. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 4(3), 11–17.

  • *Brooks, A. W. (2014). Information literacy and the flipped classroom. Communications in Information Literacy, 8(2), 225–235.

  • Brunsell, E., & Horejsi, M. (2013). Flipping your classroom in one “take”. The Science Teacher, 80(3), 8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buechler, D. N., Sealy, P. J., & Goomey, J. (2014). Three pilot studies with a focus on asynchronous distance education. Paper presented at Proceedings of 121st ASEE annual conference & exposition, Indianapolis, IN.

  • Cavalli, M., Neubert, J. J., Mcnally, D., & Jacklitch-Kuikan, D. (2014). Comparison of student performance and perceptions across multiple course delivery modes. Paper presented at proceedings of 121st ASEE annual conference, Indianapolis, IN.

  • *Chao, C., Chen, Y., & Chuang, K. (2015). Exploring students’ learning attitude and achievement in flipped learning supported computer aided design curriculum: A study in high school engineering education. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 23(4), 514–526.

  • Chen, K. S., Monrouxe, L., Lu, Y. H., Jenq, C. C., Chang, Y. J., Chang, Y. C., et al. (2018). Academic outcomes of flipped classroom learning: A meta-analysis. Medical Education, 52(9), 910–924.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Choi, J., & Lee, Y. (2015). To what extent does ‘flipping’ make lessons effective in a multimedia production class? Innovations in Education and Teaching International.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Clark, K. R. (2013). Examining the effects of the flipped model of instruction on student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom: An action research study. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1437012328).

  • Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Couch, A. C. (2014). Comparison of teaching approaches and strategies: How do the use of traditional teaching and flipped classroom teaching techniques affect the attitudes and attainment of science students in an international school in Hong Kong? Master’s thesis, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

  • *Cruzado, I., & Roman, E. M. (2015). Inverted classroom and its influence on students’ attitudes across learning styles. Transportation Research Record, 2480, 38–44.

  • *Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 563–580.

  • Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot–based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics, 56(2), 455–463.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. Boston: Springer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • *Fraga, L. M., & Harmon, J. (2014). The flipped classroom model of learning in higher education: An investigation of preservice teachers’ perspectives and achievement. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 31(1), 18–27.

  • Fulton, K. (2012). Upside down and inside out: Flip your classroom to improve student learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39(8), 12–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gannod, G. C., Burge, J. E., & Helmick, M. T. (2008). Using the inverted classroom to teach software engineering. In Proceedings of the 30th international conference on software engineering (pp. 777–786). Leipzig: ACM.

  • Gillette, C., Rudolph, M., Kimble, C., Rockich-Winston, N., Smith, L., & Broedel-Zaugg, K. (2018). A systematic review and meta analysis of student pharmacist outcomes comparing flipped classroom and lecture. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 82(5), 433–440.

    Google Scholar 

  • Glass, G. V. (1976). Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis of research. Educational researcher, 5(10), 3–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glass, G. V., MacGaw, B., & Smith, M. L. (1981). Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills, CA.: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Glynn, J. (2013). The effects of a flipped classroom on achievement and student attitudes in secondary chemistry. Master’s thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • Graham, C. R. (2013). Emerging practice and research in blended learning. In M. G. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (3rd ed., pp. 333–350). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Hantla, B. F. (2014). The effects of flipping the classroom on specific aspects of critical thinking in a Christian college: A quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1547356249).

  • *Harrington, S. A., Bosch, M. V., Schoofs, N., Beel-Bates, C., & Anderson, K. (2015). Quantitative outcomes for nursing students in a flipped classroom. Nursing Education Perspectives, 36(3), 179–181.

  • *Harvey, S. (2014). The “flipped” Latin classroom: A case study. Classical World, 108(1), 117–127.

  • Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • *Haughton, J., & Kelly, A. (2015). Student performance in an introductory business statistics course: Does delivery mode matter? Journal of Education for Business, 90(1), 31–43.

  • Hew, K. F., & Lo, C. K. (2018). Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: A meta-analysis. BMC Medical Education, 18, 38–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hibbard, L., Sung, S., & Wells, B. (2016). Examining the effectiveness of a semi-self-paced flipped learning format in a college general chemistry sequence. Journal of Chemical Education, 93(1), 24–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Higgins, J., & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 21(11), 1539–1558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., & Chinn, C. A. (2007). Scaffolding and achievement in problem-based and inquiry learning: A response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42, 99–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holdhusen, M. H. (2015). A “flipped” statics classroom. Paper presented at 2015 ASEE annual conference & exposition, Seattle, WA.

  • *Hotle, S. L., & Garrow, L. A. (2016). Effects of the traditional and flipped classrooms on undergraduate student opinions and success. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 142(1), 1–11.

  • *Hung, H. (2015). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81–96.

  • *Jensen, J. L., Kummer, T. A., & Godoy, P. D. (2015). Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 14(1), 1–12.

  • *Kang, N. H. (2015). The comparison between regular and flipped classrooms for EFL Korean adult learners. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 18(3), 41–72.

  • Karabulut-Ilgu, A., Jaramillo Cherrez, N., & Jahren, C. T. (2018). A systematic review of research on the flipped learning method in engineering education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(3), 398–411.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keengwe, J., Onchwari, G., & Agamba, J. (2014). Promoting effective E-Learning practices through the constructivist pedagogy. Education and Information Technologies, 19(4), 887–898.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kellogg, S. (2009). Developing online materials to facilitate an inverted classroom approach. Paper presented at the 39th IEEE frontiers in education conference, session T3F, San Antonio, TX.

  • Kiat, P. N., & Kwot, Y. T. (2014). The flipped classroom experience. In Proceedings of IEEE CSEE&T (pp. 39–43). Klagenfurt, Austria: IEEE Xplore Digital Library.

  • King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41(1), 30–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Kirvan, R., Rakes, C. R., & Zamora, R. (2015). Flipping an algebra classroom: Analyzing, modeling, and solving systems of linear equations. Computers in the Schools, 32(3–4), 201–223.

  • Kong, S. C. (2014). Developing information literacy and critical thinking skills through domain knowledge learning in digital classrooms: An experience of practicing flipped classroom strategy. Computers & Education, 78, 160–173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy: An overview. Theory into practice, 41(4), 212–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lage, M. J., & Platt, G. (2000). The internet and the inverted classroom. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lavelle, J. P., Stimpson, M. T., & Brill, E. D. (2013). Flipped out engineering economy: Converting a traditional class to an inverted model. In A. Krishnamurthy & W. K. V. Chan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2013 industrial systems engineering research conference (pp. 397–407). Puerto Rico: High Beam Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Li, S., & Dan, F. (2015). Influences from university students on the flipped classroom. Paper presented at the Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2015 10th International Conference, Cambridge, UK. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from,

  • *Lim, J. (2015). The effects of flipped learning on middle level of college students’ essay performance. STEM Journal, 16(4), 197–214.

  • Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Lloyd, J., & Ebener, B. (2014). Flipping a non-majors’ biology class: Using video lectures, online resources, and a student response system to facilitate deeper learning. Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science, 50(1), 93.

  • López-López, J. A., Page, M. J., Lipsey, M. W., & Higgins, J. P. (2018). Dealing with effect size multiplicity in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Research synthesis methods, 9, 336–351.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Maciejewski, W. (2016). Flipping the calculus classroom: An evaluative study. Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications, 35(4), 187–201.

  • Mahoney, E. (2013). The impact of the classroom flip on student motivation. Master’s thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • *Mattis, K. V. (2014). Flipped classroom versus traditional textbook instruction: Assessing accuracy and mental effort at different levels of mathematical complexity. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 20(2), 231–248.

  • Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., & Baki, M. (2013). The effectiveness of online and blended learning: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Teachers College Record, 115(3), 1–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Metcalf, D. (2015). The impact of flipping a middle school classroom on student achievement. Master’s thesis, California State University, California. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • *Missildine, K., Fountain, R., Summers, L., & Gosselin, K. (2013). Flipping the classroom to improve student performance and satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(10), 597–599.

  • *Moffett, J., & Mill, A. C. (2014). Evaluation of the flipped classroom approach in a veterinary professional skills course. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 5, 415–425.

  • Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Prisma Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS medicine, 6(7), e1000097.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mok, H. N. (2014). Teaching tip: The flipped classroom. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 7–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Montgomery, J. (2015). The effects of flipped learning on middle school students’ achievement with common core mathematics. Master’s thesis, California State University San Marcos, California. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from;sequence=1.

  • Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kemp, J. E., & Kalman, H. (2010). Designing effective instruction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Munson, A., & Pierce, R. (2015). Flipping content to improve student examination performance in a pharmacogenomics course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(7), 1–7.

  • Murphy, J., Chang, J., & Suaray, K. (2015). Student performance and attitudes in a collaborative and flipped linear algebra course. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 47(5), 653–673.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Murray, L., McCallum, C., & Petrosino, C. (2014). Flipping the classroom experience: A comparison of online learning to traditional lecture. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 28(3), 35–41.

  • Naccarato, E., & Karakok, G. (2015). Expectations and implementations of the flipped classroom model in undergraduate mathematics courses. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 46(7), 968–978.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Flaherty, J., & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education, 25, 85–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Ojennus, D. D. (2016). Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 44(1), 20–27.

  • *Olitsky, N. H., & Cosgrove, S. B. (2016). The better blend? Flipping the principles of microeconomics classroom. International Review of Economics Education, 21, 1–11.

  • Orwin, R. G. (1983). A fail-safe N for effect size in meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Statistics, 8(2), 157–159.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Overmyer, G. R. (2014). The flipped classroom model for college algebra: Effects on student achievement. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1615100148).

  • Pearson Partners on Flipped Learning. (2013). Electronic education report, 20(14), 5. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • *Peterson, D. J. (2016). The flipped classroom improves student achievement and course satisfaction in a statistics course: A quasi-experimental study. Teaching of Psychology, 43(1), 10–15.

  • Phipps, R., & Merisotis, J. (1999). What’s the difference? A review of contemporary research on the effectiveness of distance learning in higher education. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy.

    Google Scholar 

  • Piaget, J. (1950). The psychology of intelligence. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Prepose, L. S. (2015). Online, flipped, and traditional instruction: A comparison of student performance in higher education. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, California. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • *Quint, C. L. (2015). A study of the efficacy of the flipped classroom model in a university mathematics class. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1695832181).

  • *Ripley, D. G. (2015). An examination of flipped instructional method on sixth graders’ mathematics learning: Utilizing propensity score matching. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1696781689).

  • Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 638–641.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenthal, R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin, 118(2), 183–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruddick, K. W. (2012). Improving chemical education from high school to college using a more hands-on approach. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1082023572).

  • *Ryan, M. D., & Reid, S. A. (2016). Impact of the flipped classroom on student performance and retention: A parallel controlled study in general chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 93(1), 13–23.

  • *Sahin, A., Cavlazoglu, B., & Zeytuncu, Y. E. (2015). Flipping a college calculus course: A case study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), 142–152.

  • *Saunders, J. M. (2014). The flipped classroom: Its effect on student academic achievement and critical thinking skills in high school mathematics. Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1639087375).

  • Scammacca, N., Roberts, G., & Stuebing, K. K. (2014). Meta-analysis with complex research designs: Dealing with dependence from multiple measures and multiple group comparisons. Review of educational research, 84(3), 328–364.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schlairet, M. C., Green, R., & Benton, M. J. (2014). The flipped classroom: Strategies for an undergraduate nursing course. Nurse Educator, 39(6), 321–325.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Schultz, D., Duffield, S., Rasmuseen, S. C., & Wageman, J. (2014). Effects of the flipped classroom model on student performance for advanced placement high school chemistry students. Journal of Chemical Education, 91(9), 1334–1339.

  • *Sengel, E. (2014). Using the ‘flipped classroom’ to enhance physics achievement of the prospective teacher impact of flipped classroom model on physics course. Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, 20(3), 488–497.

  • *Shyu, H. Y. (2014). Implementing the flipped classroom strategy into in-service education. In T. Bastiaens (Ed.), E-Learn: World conference on E-learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education 2014 (pp. 1819–1823). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

  • *Smith, J. P. (2015). The efficacy of a flipped learning classroom, Doctoral dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1713692218).

  • Staker, H., & Horn, M. (2012). Classifying K-12 blended learning. The Innosight Institute website. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • Stenberg, P. R. (2014). The flipped classroom in high school pre-calculus. Master thesis, Hamline University, Minnesota. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • Sterne, J. A., & Egger, M. (2001). Funnel plots for detecting bias in meta-analysis: Guidelines on choice of axis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 54(10), 1046–1055.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Strayer, J. F. (2007). The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: A comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system. Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, Ohio. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from!etd.send_file?accession=osu1189523914&disposition=inline.

  • Strayer, J. F. (2009). Inverting the classroom: A study of the learning environment when an intelligent tutoring system is used to help students learn. Riga: VDM-Verlag Muller.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Street, S. E., Gilliland, K. O., McNeil, C., & Royal, K. (2014). The flipped classroom improved medical student performance and satisfaction in a pre-clinical physiology course. Medical Science Educator, 25(1), 35–43.

  • Sun, Z., Xie, K., & Anderman, L. (2018). The role of self-regulated learning in students’ success in flipped undergraduate math courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 36, 41–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Tsai, C., Shen, P., & Lu, Y. (2015). The effects of problem-based learning with flipped classroom on elementary students’ computing skills: A case study of the production of ebooks. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 11(2), 32–40.

  • *Van Sickle, J. (2015). Adventures in flipping college algebra. Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies, 25(8), 600–613.

  • Velegol, S. B., Zappe, S. E., & Mahoney, E. (2015). The evolution of a flipped classroom: Evidence-based recommendations. Advances in Engineering Education, 4, 1–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vo, H. M., Zhu, C., & Diep, N. A. (2017). The effect of blended learning on student performance at course-level in higher education: A meta-analysis. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 53, 17–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Wasserman, N. H., Quint, C., Norris, S. A., & Carr, T. (2015). Exploring flipped classroom instruction in calculus III. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(3), 545–568.

  • *Whillier, S., & Lystad, R. P. (2015). No differences in grades or level of satisfaction in a flipped classroom for neuroanatomy. The Journal of Chiropractic Education, 29(2), 127–133.

  • *Whitman Cobb, W. N. (2016). Turning the classroom upside down: Experimenting with the flipped classroom in American government. Journal of Political Science Education, 12(1), 1–14.

  • *Willis, J. A. (2014). The effects of flipping an undergraduate precalculus class. Doctoral dissertation, Appalachian State University, North Carolina. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from,%20Jason_2014_%20Thesis.pdf.

  • *Winter, J. B. (2013). The effect of the flipped model on achievement in an introductory college physics course. Master’s thesis. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1469609819).

  • *Yousefzadeh, M., & Salimi, A. (2015). The effect of flipped learning (revised learning) on Iranian students’ learning outcomes. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(5), 209–213.

  • Zappe, S., Leicht, R., Messner, J., Litzinger, T., & Lee, H. W. (2009). “Flipping” the classroom to explore active learning in a large undergraduate course. In Proceedings of the 2009 American Society for Engineering Education annual conference and exhibition. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from

  • Zhai, X., Gu, J., Liu, H., Liang, J. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2017). An experiential learning perspective on students’ satisfaction model in a Flipped Classroom context. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 198–210.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was not funded by any grants or contracts.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Albert D. Ritzhaupt.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cheng, L., Ritzhaupt, A.D. & Antonenko, P. Effects of the flipped classroom instructional strategy on students’ learning outcomes: a meta-analysis. Education Tech Research Dev 67, 793–824 (2019).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: