Failing to learn: towards a unified design approach for failure-based learning
- 1k Downloads
To date, many instructional systems are designed to support learners as they progress through a problem-solving task. Often these systems are designed in accordance with instructional design models that progress the learner efficiently through the problem-solving process. However, theories from various fields have discussed failure as a strategic way to engender learning. Although researchers suggest that failure may be an element of problem-solving, no models have discussed how to employ failure strategically within instructional design. Given this gap, we first present failure-based research from various theoretical frameworks. Based on the research, we proffer failure-based principles for learning systems design. Implications and future research are also discussed.
KeywordsFailure Problem-solving Unified theory Instructional design Case-based reasoning Productive failure
- Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (2013). Reflection: Turning experience into learning. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- De Jong, T., & Lazonder, A. (2014). The guided discovery learning principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (2nd ed., pp. 370–390). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Ellis, S. (2011). Learning from errors: The role of after-event reviews. In J. Bauer & C. Harteis (Eds.), Human fallibility: The ambiguity of errors for work and learning (pp. 215–314). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Henry, H., Tawfik, A. A., Jonassen, D. H., Winholtz, R., & Khanna, S. (2012). “I know this is supposed to be more like the real world, but…”: Student perceptions of a PBL implementation in an undergraduate materials science course. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning. doi: 10.7771/1541-5015.1312.Google Scholar
- Herrington, J., Reeves, T. C., & Oliver, R. (2014). Authentic learning environments. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (4th ed., pp. 453–464). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
- Hmelo-Silver, C. E., & Eberbach, C. (2012).Learning theories and problem-based learning.In Bridges, S., McGrath, C., & Whitehill, T. L. (Eds.), Problem-based learning in clinical education (pp. 3–17). Springer Netherlands. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-2515-7_1.
- Kapur, M. (2008). Productive failure. Cognition and Instruction, 38(6), 523–550.Google Scholar
- Kapur, M. (2010). Productive failure in mathematical problem solving. Instructional Science, 26(3), 379–424.Google Scholar
- Kolb, D. A. (2014). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Pearson FT Press.Google Scholar
- Kolodner, J. L., Owensby, J., & Guzdial, M. (2004). Case-based learning aids. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology: A project of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (2nd ed., pp. 829–861). Mahwah: LEA.Google Scholar
- Lorch, R. F, Jr, Lorch, E. P., Calderhead, W., Dunlap, E., Hodell, E., & Freer, B. (2010). Learning the control of variables strategy in higher and lower achieving classrooms: Contributions of explicit instruction and experimentation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 90–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Piaget, J. (1977). The development of thought: equilibration of cognitive structures (Vol. viii). Oxford: Viking.Google Scholar
- Piaget, J., Brown, T., & Thampy, K. J. (1985). The equilibration of cognitive structures: the central problem of intellectual development (Vol. 985). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Renner, J. W., Stafford, D. G., Lawson, A. E., McKinnon, J. W., Friot, F. E., & Kellogg, D. H. (1976). Research, teaching, and learning with the Piaget model. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
- Schank, R. (1982). Dynamic memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Schon, D. A. (1984). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action (1st ed.). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Spiro, R., Coulson, R. L., Feltovich, P., & Anderson, D. K. (1998). Cognitive flexibility theory: advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains.Google Scholar
- VanLehn, K. (1988). Toward a theory of impasse-driven learning. In Mandl, D. H. & Lesgold, D. A. (Eds.) Learning Issues for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 19–41). Springer US. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-6350-7_2.