History of Spinal Fusion: Where We Came from and Where We Are Going

Abstract

Spinal fusion surgery is performed all over the world to help patients with cervical and thoracolumbar pathology. As outcomes continue to improve in patients with spine-related pathology, it is important to understand how we got to modern day spinal fusion surgery. Scientific innovations have ranged from the first spinal fusions performed with basic instrumentation in the late nineteenth century to contemporary tools such as pedicle screws, bone grafts, and interbody devices. This article tracks this technological growth so that surgeons may better serve their patients in treating spine-related pain and disability.

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Correspondence to Sohrab Virk MD, MBA.

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Sohrab Virk, MD, MBA, declares no conflicts of interest. Sheeraz Qureshi, MD, MBA, reports consulting fees from Stryker, Globus Medical, Inc., and Paradigm Spine; royalties from RTI, Globus Medical, Inc., and Stryker; ownership interest in Avaz Surgical and Vital 5; medical/scientific advisory board membership at Spinal Simplicity and Lifelink.com; board membership at Healthgrades and the Minimally Invasive Spine Study Group; and honoraria from AMOpportunities, outside the submitted work. Harvinder Sandhu, MD, reports personal fees from Biorestorative Therapies and Prosidyan Medical and stock or stock options from Amedica, Biorestorative Therapies, Paradigm Spine, Prosydian Medical, and Spinewave, outside the submitted work.

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Virk, S., Qureshi, S. & Sandhu, H. History of Spinal Fusion: Where We Came from and Where We Are Going. HSS Jrnl 16, 137–142 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11420-020-09747-7

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Keywords

  • history of spinal surgery
  • spinal fusion
  • bone graft
  • spine technology