Determining the Effects of a 4-Week Structured Strength and Flexibility Exercise Program on Functional Status of Subjects with Osteoporosis



Osteoporosis is a systemic disease resulting in low bone mineral density, increased risk of fractures, and falls, muscle weakness, and compromised balance. Nutrition and physical exercise have been shown to be effective in the treatment of low bone mineral density and, with more severe osteoporosis, as adjuncts to pharmaceutical treatments. However, living with osteoporosis may diminish an individual’s ability and confidence to perform activities that enhance bone density.


This study investigated the following question: In women with osteoporosis, will there be a greater improvement in balance, lower-extremity strength, mobility, and confidence in performing ambulatory activities after participating in a structured exercise program as compared to a control group?


This was a prospective comparative trial in which 48 women who had a confirmed diagnosis of osteoporosis were enrolled in either an exercise group (a 4-week exercise program) or a control group (no structured exercise). Functional outcomes using valid and reliable tools were measured before and after exercise in the study group and at comparable times in the control group. Differences in function were assessed by paired t tests to evaluate group differences in functional outcomes.


Of the 48 women recruited, 45 completed the study. Women in the exercise group (n = 27) demonstrated an increase in balance and lower-extremity strength over women in the control group (n = 18). Both groups showed an increase in mobility but no change in confidence in ambulation.


This study showed that women with osteoporosis demonstrated improved balance and lower-extremity strength after participating in a structured exercise program. These changes may be important in improving overall functional status.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Payal Sahni PT, DPT, MCMT.

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Conflict of Interest

Payal Sahni, PT, DPT, MCMT, and Jeri W. Nieves, PhD, declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human/Animal Rights

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in this study.

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Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the online version of this article.

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Level of Evidence: Level III: Therapeutic Study

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Sahni, P., Nieves, J.W. Determining the Effects of a 4-Week Structured Strength and Flexibility Exercise Program on Functional Status of Subjects with Osteoporosis. HSS Jrnl 15, 241–246 (2019).

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  • osteoporosis
  • functional status
  • activity-specific balance
  • chair stand test
  • balance test
  • timed up and go