Modern Instrumentation of the Pediatric Occiput and Upper Cervical Spine

Review Article

Abstract

Background

Rigid screw rod techniques for cervical stabilization are widely used in adults. The benefits of rigid internal fixation include increased fusion rates, improvements in deformity correction, and diminished immobilization requirements. Applications of these techniques in children are challenging due to size constraints and the pathologic conditions encountered which require instrumented cervical fusions. Preparation as well as thorough understanding of the anatomy and surgical techniques is paramount to surgical safety in pediatric patients.

Questions/Purposes

This review article serves as an educational tool regarding the use of modern posterior instrumentation techniques for pediatric cervical deformity.

Methods

Expert review based on clinical expertise and literature review.

Results

The use of rigid screw rod instrumentation for the pediatric occiput and upper cervical spine is discussed. Preoperative imaging requirements for pediatric patients undergoing cervical spine surgery are reviewed. Anatomy, morphologic studies, and surgical techniques are discussed for each area of instrumentation.

Conclusions

Modern posterior cervical instrumentation techniques can be safely applied to the majority of pediatric patients who require an instrumented posterior cervical fusion. Patient safety revolves around thorough preoperative imaging tests, understanding of upper cervical anatomy, and meticulous surgical technique. Modern instrumentation leads to an improvement in fusion rates and a diminishment in immobilization requirements.

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Disclosures

Conflict of Interest:

Daniel Hedequist, MD has declared that he has no conflict of interest.

Human/Animal Rights:

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the any of the authors.

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Correspondence to Daniel Hedequist MD.

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Hedequist, D. Modern Instrumentation of the Pediatric Occiput and Upper Cervical Spine. HSS Jrnl 11, 9–14 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11420-014-9398-4

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Keywords

  • pediatric
  • cervical spine
  • screw fixation