Late Tourniquet Release and Drain Clamping Reduces Postoperative Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Abstract

Background

Many studies have investigated the effect of tourniquet release time and closed suction drainage in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, controversy remains as to the advisability of preclosure tourniquet release and the advisability of closed suction drain use following total knee arthroplasty.

Questions/Purposes

The aim of the study was to investigate if there is a benefit of performing tourniquet release after skin closure, along with drain clamping, for the first 6h following TKA.

Methods

Ninety-six patients underwent TKA between May 2009 and April 2010. Fourteen of these were excluded because of systemic diseases and simultaneous bilateral TKA. Twenty-nine of these were excluded due to use of a patellar component and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-sacrificing systems. Thus, 53 patients that underwent PCL-retaining cemented TKA were reviewed retrospectively. In the control group (group C), the tourniquet was released before skin closure, an attempt at hemostasis was made, and a compressive bandage was applied. The drain was not clamped in these patients. The test group of 23 patients (group T) had tourniquet release after skin closure and after the compressive bandage was applied. The drain was clamped for the first 6h after surgery. The two groups were compared as to the amount of drained blood, postoperative change in hemoglobin, postoperative complications, and knee function.

Results

We found that drained blood and hemoglobin drop were significantly lower in group T compared with group C. There was no difference regarding postoperative complications and knee function.

Conclusion

We conclude that tourniquet release after skin closure and compressive dressing followed by 6h of drain clamping reduces postoperative blood loss in TKR surgery.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Ibrahim Yanmis, MD, Dogan Bek, MD, Huseyin Ozkan, MD, Yuksel Yurttas, MD, Atıl Atilla, MD, and Zafer Atbasi, MD, in Gulhane Military Medicine Academy for their contribution to the study.

Disclosures

Conflict of Interest:

Kenan Koca, MD, Cemil Yildiz, MD, Necmettin Kocak, MD, Servet Tunay, MD, and Mustafa Basbozkurt, MD, have declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Human/Animal Rights:

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5).

Informed Consent:

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

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Correspondence to Cemil Yildiz MD.

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Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Study Level III. See “Levels of Evidence” for a complete description.

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Yildiz, C., Koca, K., Kocak, N. et al. Late Tourniquet Release and Drain Clamping Reduces Postoperative Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty. HSS Jrnl 10, 2–5 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11420-013-9363-7

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Keywords

  • total knee arthroplasty
  • blood lost
  • tourniquet release time
  • drain clamping and compressive bandage