Skip to main content


Log in

Hepatitis C- and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Induced Hypersensitivity Vasculitis

A Clinical Pathology Conference Held by the Division of Rheumatology at Hospital for Special Surgery

  • Clinical Pathology Conference
  • Published:
HSS Journal

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. Sene D, Ghillani-Dalbin P, Thibault V et al (2004) Longterm course of mixed cryoglobulinemia in patients infected with hepatitis C virus. J. Rheumatol. 31:2199–2206

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Vallat L, Benhamou Y, Gutierrez M et al (2004) Clonal B cell populations in the blood and liver of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Arthritis Rheum. 50:3668–3678

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Sano S, Misiani R, Bellavita P, Fenili D, Vicari O, Marchesi D, Sironi PL et al (1994) Interferon alfa-2a therapy in cryoglobulinemia associated with hepatitis C virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:751–756

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ferri C, Marzo E, Longombardo G, Lombardini F, La Civita L, Vanacore R et al (1993) Interferon-alfa in mixed cryoglobulinemia patients: a randomized, crossover-controlled trial. Blood 81:1132–1136

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Casato M, Agnello V, Pucillo LP, Knight GB, Leoni M, DelVecchio S et al (1997) Predictors of long-term response to high-dose interferon therapy in type II cryoglobulinemia associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Blood 90:3865–3873

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Cacoub P, Lidove O, Maisonobe T, Duhaut P, Thibault V, Ghillani P et al (2002) Interferon-alfa and ribavirin treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus-related systemic vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum. 46:3317–3326

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Naarendorp M, Kallemuchikkal U, Nuovo GJ, Gorevic PD (2001) Longterm efficacy of interferon-alfa for extrahepatic disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection. J. Rheumatol. 28:2466–2473

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Saadoun D, Resche-Rigon M, Thibault V et al (2006) Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis: a longterm followup study. Arthritis Rheum. 54:3696–3706

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Fain O, Hamidou M, Cacoub P (2007) Vasculitides associated with malignancies: analysis of sixty patients. Arthritis Rheum. 57:1473–1480

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Hearth-Holmes M, Zahradka S, Baethge BA et al (1991) Leukocytoclastic vasculitis associated with hepatitis C. Am. J. Med. 90(6):765–766

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Yazici Y, Lockshin MD (2006) The vasculitides. In: Paget S (ed) Hospital for Special Surgery Manual of Rheumatology and Outpatient Orthopedic Disorders. New York, Lippincott

    Google Scholar 

  12. Calabrese LH et al (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of hypersensitivity vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum. 33(8):1108–1113

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Cacoub P, Poynard T, Ghillani P et al (1999) Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C. MULTIVIRC Group. Multidepartment virus C. Arthritis Rheum. 42:2204–2212

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Osborne SF, Stafford L, Orr KG (2002) Paroxetine-associated psoriasis. Am. J. Psychiatr. 159(12):2113

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Brenner S, Cabili S, Wolf R (1993) Widespread erythematous scaly plaques in an adult. Psoriasiform eruption induced by quinidine. Arch. Dermatol. 129(10):1331–1332 1334–5

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Sfikakis PP, Iliopoulos A, Elezoglou A et al (2005) Psoriasis induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: a paradoxical adverse reaction. Arthritis Rheum. 52(8):2513–2518

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Collamer AN, Guerrero KT, Henning JS et al (2008) Psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy: a literature review and potential mechanisms of action. Arthritis Rheum. 59(7):996–1001 Review

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Taylor W, Gladman D, Marchesoni A et al (2006) Classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis: development of new criteria from a large international study. Arthritis Rheum. 54(8):2665–2673

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Reich K, Hüffmeier U, König IR et al (2007) TNF polymorphisms in psoriasis: association of psoriatic arthritis with the promoter polymorphism TNF*-875 independent of the PSORS1 risk allele. Arthritis Rheum. 56:2056–2064

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Cargill M, Schrodi SJ, Chang M et al (2007) A large-scale genetic association study confirms IL12B and leads to the identification of IL23R as psoriasis-risk genes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80:273–290

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. McHugh NJ, Laurent MR, Treadwell BL et al (1987) Psoriatic arthritis: clinical subgroups and histocompatibility antigens. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 46(13):84–88

    Google Scholar 

  22. Queiro R, Gonzalez S, Lopez-Larrea C et al (2006) HLA-C locus alleles may modulate the clinical expression of psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis Res. Ther. 8(6):R185

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Schröder JM, Reich K, Kabashima K et al (2006) Who is really in control of skin immunity under physiological circumstances—lymphocytes, dendritic cells or keratinocytes? Exp. Dermatol. 15:913–929

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Sano S, Chan KS, Carbajal S et al (2005) Stat3 links activated keratinocytes and immunocytes required for development of psoriasis in a novel transgenic mouse model. Nat. Med. 11:43–49

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to thank Dr. Kristin Marx for her presentation and helpful discussion regarding this case.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roodabeh Michelle Koolaee DO.

Additional information

Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article.

Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the reporting of this case, that all investigations were conducted in conformity with ethical principles of research.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Koolaee, R.M., Singer, O., Bass, A. et al. Hepatitis C- and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Induced Hypersensitivity Vasculitis. HSS Jrnl 6, 102–107 (2010).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: