Professionalism and Medicine

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

  1. 1.

    In contemporary times, a third potentially dominant pathway of medical ethics known as organizational ethics has emerged to address ethical issues associated with the business and managerial aspects of healthcare organizations. This approach recognizes that the quality of care experienced by patients depends in part on the values of the healthcare organization with which they and their physicians and other heath care providers interact [7].

  2. 2.

    Medicine is the only profession that still honors an oath [26].

References

  1. 1.

    Osler WO (1932) On the educational value of the medical society. In: Aequanimitas, with other addresses to medical students, nurses and practitioners of medicine, 3rd edn. Blakiston, Philadelphia, pp 395–423

  2. 2.

    Barondess JA (2003) Medicine and professionalism. Arch Intern Med 163:145–149

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation; American College of Physicians–American Society of Internal Medicine (ACP–ASIM) Foundation; European Federation of Internal Medicine (2002) Medical professionalism in the new millennium: a physician charter. Ann Intern Med 136:243–246

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Reiser SJ, Banner RS (2003) The Charter on Medical Professionalism and the limits of medical power. Ann Intern Med 138:844–846

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Hafferty F (2006) Viewpoint: the elephant in medical professionalism’s kitchen. Acad Med 81:906–914

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Spencer EM (1977) Professional ethics. In: Fletcher JC, Lombardo PA, Marshal MF, Miller FG (eds) Introduction to clinical ethics, 2nd edn. University Publishing Group, Frederick, Maryland

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Mills AE, Spencer EM (2005) Introduction to organizational ethics. In: Fletcher JC, Spencer EM, Lombardo PA (eds) Fletcher’s introduction to clinical ethics, 3rd edn. University Publishing Group, Hagerstown, Maryland

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Miles SH (2004) The Hippocratic oath and the ethics of medicine. University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Markel H (2004) “I swear by Apollo”—on taking the Hippocratic oath. N Engl J Med 350:2026–2029

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    McCullough LB (2006) The ethical concept of medicine as a profession: its origins in modern medical ethics and implications for physicians. In: Kenny N, Shelton W (eds) Advances in bioethics, vol. 10. Lost virtue: professional character development in medical education. Elsevier, New York, pp 17–27

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Percival T (1803) Medical ethics or a code of institutes and precepts, adapted to the professional conduct of physicians and surgeons. Johnson and Bickerstaff, London

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Jonsen AR (1998) A short history of medical ethics. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Beachamp TL, Childress JF (2001) Principles of biomedical ethics. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Tong R (1997) Feminist approaches to bioethics: theoretical reflections and practical applications. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Pellegrino ED (2002) Professionalism, Profession and the Virtues of the Good Physician. Mt Sinai J Med 69:378–384

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Veatch RM (2006) Character formation in professional education: a word of caution. In: Kenny N, Shelton W (eds) Advances in bioethics, vol. 10. Lost virtue: professional character development in medical education. New York, Elsevier

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hafferty F (2004) Toward the operationalization of professionalism: a commentary. Am J Bioeth 4:28–31

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    MacKenzie CR, Cronstein BN (2006) Conflict of interest. HSS Jrnl 2:198–201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bekelman JE, Li Y, Gross CP (2003) Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research. JAMA 239:454–465

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Hillman AI, Pauly MV, Kerstein B (1989) How do financial incentives affect physician’s clinical decisions and the financial performance of health maintenance organizations? N Engl J Med 321:86–92

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Hillman AI et al (1990) Frequency and costs of diagnostic imaging in office practice: Comparison of self-referring and radiologist referring physicians. N Engl J Med 323:1604–1608

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Chren MM, Landefeld CS (1994) Physicians behavior and their interactions with drug companies: a controlled study of physicians who request additions to a hospital formulary. JAMA 271:684–689

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Wazana A (2000) Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: is a gift just ever a gift? JAMA 283:373–380

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Wear D (2004) The professionalism movement: can we pause? Am J Bioeth 4:1–10

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Freidson E (2001) Professionalism, the third logic: on the practice of knowledge. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p 1001

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Swick HM, Bryan CS, Longo LD (2006) Beyond the physician charter: reflections on medical professionalism. Perspect Biol Med 49:263–275

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Krohmal BJ, Emanuel EJ (2007) Access and ability to pay: the ethics of a tiered health care system. Arch Intern Med 167:433–437

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Arnold L, Stern DT (2006) What is medical professionalism? In: Stern DT (ed) Measuring medical professionalism. New York, Oxford University Press

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Rothman DJ (2000) Medical professionalism—focusing on the real issues. N Engl J Med 342:1284–1286

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Papadakis MA, Hodgson CS, Teherani A et al (2004) Unprofessional behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board. Acad Med 79:244–249

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Papadakis MA, Teherani A, Banach MA et al (2005) Disciplinary action by medical boards and prior behavior in medical school. N Engl J Med 353:2673–2682

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Kirk LM, Blank LL (2005) Professional behavior—a learner’s permit for licensure. N Engl J Med 353:2709–2711

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Kenny N, Shelton W (2006) Character formation in professional education: a word of caution. In: Kenny N, Shelton W (eds) Advances in bioethics, vol. 10. Lost virtue: professional character development in medical education. New York, Elsevier

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Stern D, Papadakis M (2006) The developing physician—becoming a professional. N Engl J Med 355:1794–1799

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    American Board of Internal Medicine (1994) Project professionalism. ABIM, Philadelphia, PA

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (2005) Outcome project. ACGEM, Chicago. http://www.acgme.org/outcome/comp/compHome.asp

  37. 37.

    Stern DT (2006) Measuring medical professionalism. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Bliss M (1999) William Osler: a life in medicine. University of Toronto Press, Toronto

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Osler WO (1904) Aequanimitas with other addresses to medical students, nurses, and practitioners of medicine. Blakiston, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Osler WO (1907) The reserves of life. St Mary’s Hosp Gaz 13:95–98

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Ronald MacKenzie MD.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

MacKenzie, C.R. Professionalism and Medicine. HSS Jrnl 3, 222–227 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11420-007-9054-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Medical Professionalism
  • Social Contract
  • Professional Ethic
  • Ethic Consultation
  • Professional Code