Fentanyl: cause of death or incidental finding? Postmortem peripheral blood concentrations with and without documented transdermal patch use
- 383 Downloads
We reviewed postmortem fentanyl cases to compare peripheral blood (PB) concentrations between deaths caused by fentanyl and deaths in which fentanyl was incidental. Furthermore, we describe PB concentrations in fentanyl-caused deaths with and without transdermal (TD) fentanyl use. Our review produced 20 cases with PB fentanyl. Of these, 13 were determined to be fentanyl-caused deaths. Eight of the 13 involved TD fentanyl. The remaining 7 cases were decedents undergoing therapy with fentanyl (TD, n = 3; intravenous, n = 4). In the 13 fentanyl-caused deaths, the mean PB fentanyl level was 30.1 ng/ml. In the deaths involving TD fentanyl use, the mean fentanyl level was 41.7 ng/ml. Deaths without TD fentanyl use had a mean fentanyl level of 21.3 ng/ml. There were 7 other cases with incidental fentanyl. In 3 of these, therapeutic TD fentanyl was used and the mean PB concentration was 16.6 ng/ml. In the remaining 4 deaths in which therapeutic intravenous fentanyl was employed, the mean PB fentanyl level was 8.1 ng/ml. Our review suggests that a PB fentanyl concentration equal to or greater than 25 ng/ml indicates that fentanyl should be considered as being contributory to or the cause of death. However, ranges of measured PB concentrations are once again shown to overlap between subjects who overdose and those who use fentanyl as prescribed. In addition, fentanyl-caused deaths involving TD fentanyl exposure have higher PB fentanyl concentrations than those who did not use transdermal patches. Although enlightening, our study suggests that further evaluation of fentanyl concentration variability among different postmortem blood specimens is needed.
KeywordsPostmortem forensic toxicology Peripheral blood Fentanyl Transdermal patch Cause of death
The authors acknowledge the work performed by the employees of the Medical, Investigative and Forensic Laboratory Divisions of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of the City and County of San Francisco on the cases comprising the sample population of the present article.
Conflict of interest
There are no financial or other relations that could lead to a conflict of interest.
- 3.Namera A, Saito T, Miyazaki S, Ohta S, Oikawa H, Torikoshi A, Shiraishi H, Nagao M (2013) Sequential extraction of amphetamines, opiates, and 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid from a limited volume of urine using a monolithic silica spin column coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Forensic Toxicol 31:312–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.National Association of Medical Examiners (2013) Position paper: recommendations for the investigation, diagnosis and certification of deaths related to opioid drugs. Acad Forensic Pathol 3:77–83Google Scholar