In Ayurveda, a traditional Indian medicine system, clarified butter is called ghee and is used for food and medicinal purposes. Since butter is subjected to heat to prepare ghee, the heating process affects the ghee quality, such as oxidation, flavor, nutritional value, and biological activity. Therefore, this study focused on the Maillard reaction progress and free-radical scavenging activity with temperature and time during ghee preparation. First, ghee was prepared at low to high temperatures, and its quality (milk fat content, retinol, α-tocopherol, peroxide value, Maillard reaction progress, and free radical scavenging activity) was evaluated. Maillard reaction progress was enhanced at medium and high temperatures (120–160 ℃), and the free radical-scavenging activity of ghee corresponded to the Maillard reaction progress. Since ghee is often reheated during use, we further evaluated the effect of the reheating process. The reheating process did not alter the Maillard reaction progress or the free radical scavenging activity. Our findings serve as good quality control measures for ghee preparation.
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The funding was provided by Japanese Dairy Science Association Foundation.
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Yokogawa, T., Yamazaki, C., Hara, M. et al. Effect of Maillard reaction on the quality of clarified butter, ghee. J Nat Med 77, 230–237 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-022-01661-y