Atherosclerosis is a major cause of coronary heart disease. As a result of the development of atherosclerotic lesions, the walls of blood vessels become thicker and inhibit blood circulation. Atherosclerosis is caused by a high-fat diet and vascular injury. Chronic arterial inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In particular, secretion of the pro-atherogenic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α induces expression of endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which mediate attachment of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes. In this study, we examined the anti-atherosclerotic effect of sorghum, which is known to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. A 50% ethanol extract of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench fermented with Aspergillus oryzae NK (fSBE) was used for experiments. In vitro expression of endothelial adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and pro-inflammatory factor cyclooxygenase-2 was significantly decreased and that of the anti-atherogenic factor heme oxygenase-1 significantly increased by fSBE (P < 0.05). At the in vivo level, we examined fat droplets of liver tissue, and aortic thickness via histological analysis, and determined the blood lipid profile through chemical analysis. fSBE at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly improved blood and vascular health (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results demonstrate that fSBE has potential as a therapeutic anti-atherosclerotic agent.
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This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) through the Encouragement Program for The Industries of Economic Cooperation Region (R0000429).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Ham, Y.M., Song, H.S., Kwon, J.E. et al. Effects of fermented Sorghum bicolor L. Moench extract on inflammation and thickness in a vascular cell and atherosclerotic mice model . J Nat Med 73, 34–46 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-018-1231-9
- Sorghum bicolor
- Aspergillus oryzae