Appetite-enhancing effects of vanilla flavours such as vanillin
Vanilla flavour is familiar to consumers through foods, cosmetics, household products and some medicines. Vanilla flavouring agents typically contain vanillin or its analogue ethyl vanillin. Our previous study revealed that the inhalation of eugenol, which contains a vanillyl group, has an appetite-enhancing effect, and the inhalation of aroma compounds containing the vanillyl group or its analogues led to increased food intake in mice. Here, we found that vanillin, ethyl vanillin and eugenol showed appetite-enhancing effects, whereas isoeugenol and safrole did not. These results suggest that the appetite-enhancing effects could be attributable to the vanillyl group and could be affected by the position of the double bond in the aliphatic chain. Furthermore, the results of intraperitoneal administration of eugenol and vanillin suggest that their appetite-enhancing effects could occur via stimulation of olfactory receptors.
KeywordsVanilla flavouring agents Appetite-enhancing effects Inhalation
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
- 1.Hotta M, Ogata K, Nitta A, Hoshikawa K, Yanagi M, Yamazaki K (1989) Useful plants of the world. Heibonsha, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- 2.Nishi T (1999) Shokubutsu-no hanashi arekore 7. Puranta 64:49–53Google Scholar
- 8.National Institute of Standards and Technology (2016) Trans-Isoeugenol. http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C5932683&Mask=200. Accessed on 24 Feb 2018
- 9.National Institute of Standards and Technology (2016) Cis-Isoeugenol. http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=5912-86-7. Accessed on 24 Feb 2018
- 18.Higuchi Masaki (2016) EVERYDAY Sweets Mainichi tabetai, tsukuritai sweets recipes 100. Graphic-sha Publishing, TokyoGoogle Scholar