Advertisement

Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 71, Issue 4, pp 632–641 | Cite as

Antiosteoporotic activity of a syringic acid diet in ovariectomized mice

  • Teruyoshi Tanaka
  • Nobuhisa Kawaguchi
  • Nobuhiro Zaima
  • Tatsuya Moriyama
  • Yasuhisa Fukuta
  • Norifumi Shirasaka
Original Paper

Abstract

In recent years, the number of patients with osteoporosis has risen with the increase in average longevity. Therefore, the chemoprevention of osteoporosis using food materials or food components has become an increasingly important target. Syringic acid (SA) is a phenolic compound present in the fruit of the açaí palm Euterpe oleracea and the mycelium of the shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes. This compound has no affinity for estrogen receptors and is potentially useful for disease prevention. However, little is known about the effects of a SA diet on bone metabolism, particularly bone resorption in vivo. Here, we demonstrated the effects of a SA diet on bone loss and uterine weight loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Ten-week-old OVX mice were fed SA-containing diets (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks of dietary SA, the body weight, food intake, and uterine weight of the OVX mice were unaffected; however, femoral bone mineral density (cortical bone density, cancellous bone density, and total bone density) was higher in the SA-fed groups than in the OVX-control group. Furthermore, histomorphometric analysis revealed that the number of osteoclasts and osteoblasts was decreased and increased, respectively, in the SA-fed groups. These results suggest that a SA diet suppresses bone loss by downregulating bone resorption and upregulating bone formation without affecting the uterus in OVX mice. Although further studies are needed, SA may be a compound that can be used to prevent or retard osteoporosis.

Keywords

Syringic acid Ovariectomized mice Osteoclast Osteoblast 

Abbreviations

SA

Syringic acid

OVX

Ovariectomized

ER

Estrogen receptor

DPD

Deoxypyridinoline

Cre

Creatinine

TRAP

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

BAP

Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase

CT

Computed tomography

SD

Standard deviation

Notes

Acknowledgment

This study has been in part funded and supported by the Strategic Project to Support the Formation of Research Bases at Private Universities: Matching Fund Subsidy from MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), 2015–2018 (S1512004).

References

  1. 1.
    Lee YB, Lee HJ, Kim KS, Lee JY, Nam SY, Cheon SH, Sohn HS (2004) Evaluation of the preventive effect of isoflavone extract on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68:1040–1045CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ishimi Y, Arai N, Wang X, Wu J, Umegaki K, Miyaura C, Takeda A, Ikegami S (2000) Difference in effective dosage of genistein on bone and uterus in ovariectomized mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 274:697–701CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Picherit C, Coxam V, Bennetau-Pelissero C, Kati-Coulibaly S, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Barlet JP (2000) Daidzein is more efficient than genistein in preventing ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. J Nutr 130:1675–1681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Casanova M, You L, Gaido KW, Archibeque-Engle S, Janszen DB, Heck HA (1999) Developmental effects of dietary phytoestrogens in Sprague–Dawley rats and interactions of genistein and daidzein with rat estrogen receptors alpha and beta in vitro. Toxicol Sci 51:236–244Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boué SM, Wiese TE, Nehls S, Burow ME, Elliott S, Carter-Wientjes CH, Shih BY, McLachlan JA, Cleveland TE (2003) Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J Agric Food Chem 51:2193–2199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R (2006) Estrogen deficiency and bone loss: an inflammatory tale. J Clin Invest 116:1186–1194CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gaete L, Tchernitchin AN, Bustamante R, Villena J, Lemus I, Gidekel M, Cabrera G, Astorga P (2012) Daidzein–estrogen interaction in the rat uterus and its effect on human breast cancer cell growth. J Med Food 15:1081–1090Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang TT, Sathyamoorthy N, Phang JM (1996) Molecular effects of genistein on estrogen receptor mediated pathways. Carcinogenesis 17:271–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rachoń D, Vortherms T, Seidlova-Wuttke D, Wuttke W (2007) Dietary daidzein and puerarin do not affect pituitary LH expression but exert uterotropic effects in ovariectomized rats. Maturitas 57:161–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pacheco-Palencia LA, Mertens-Talcott S, Talcott ST (2008) Chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and thermal stability of a phytochemical enriched oil from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). J Agric Food Chem 56:4631–4636Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Itoh A, Isoda K, Kondoh M, Kawase M, Kobayashi M, Tamesada M, Yagi K (2009) Hepatoprotective effect of syringic acid and vanillic acid on concanavalin a-induced liver injury. Biol Pharm Bull 32:1215–1219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simoncini T, Lenzi E, Zöchling A, Gopal S, Goglia L, Russo E, Polak K, Casarosa E, Jungbauer A, Genazzani AD, Genazzani AR (2011) Estrogen-like effects of wine extracts on nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial cells. Maturitas 70:169–175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nakajima Y, Sato Y, Konishi T (2007) Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga). Chem Pharm Bull 55:1222–1226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sevgi K, Tepe B, Sarikurkcu C (2015) Antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials of selected phenolic acids. Food Chem Toxicol 77:12–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Itoh A, Isoda K, Kondoh M, Kawase M, Watari A, Kobayashi M, Tamesada M, Yagi K (2010) Hepatoprotective effect of syringic acid and vanillic acid on CCl4-induced liver injury. Biol Pharm Bull 33:983–987CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yan SL, Wang ZH, Yen HF, Lee YJ, Yin MC (2016) Reversal of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity by cinnamic and syringic acids in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 98:119–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kang SN, Lee JS, Park JH, Cho JH, Park JH, Cho KK, Lee OH, Kim IS (2014) In vitro anti-osteoporosis properties of diverse Korean Drynariae rhizoma phenolic extracts. Nutrients 6:1737–1751Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dimai HP, Linkhart TA, Linkhart SG, Donahue LR, Beamer WG, Rosen CJ, Farley JR, Baylink DJ (1998) Alkaline phosphatase levels and osteoprogenitor cell numbers suggest bone formation may contribute to peak bone density differences between two inbred strains of mice. Bone 22:211–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tanaka T, Tang H, Yu F, Michihara S, Uzawa Y, Zaima N, Moriyama T, Kawamura Y (2011) Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) vine ethanol extracts improve ovariectomy-induced bone loss in female mice. J Agric Food Chem 59:13230–13237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cikman O, Soylemez O, Ozkan OF, Kiraz HA, Sayar I, Ademoglu S, Taysi S, Karaayvaz M (2015) Antioxidant activity of syringic acid prevents oxidative stress in l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis: an experimental study on rats. Int Surg 100:891–896CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wei WL, Zeng R, Gu CM, Qu Y, Huang LF (2016) Angelica sinensis in China—a review of botanical profile, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and chemical analysis. J Ethnopharmacol 190:116–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xiao HH, Gao QG, Zhang Y, Wong KC, Dai Y, Yao XS, Wong MS (2014) Vanillic acid exerts oestrogen-like activities in osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells through MAP kinase (MEK/ERK)-mediated ER signaling pathway. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 144:382–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teruyoshi Tanaka
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nobuhisa Kawaguchi
    • 3
  • Nobuhiro Zaima
    • 1
  • Tatsuya Moriyama
    • 1
  • Yasuhisa Fukuta
    • 1
  • Norifumi Shirasaka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of AgricultureKindai UniversityNaraJapan
  2. 2.Department of Biomolecular ScienceFukushima Medical University School of MedicineFukushimaJapan
  3. 3.Laboratory, Biological Business DepartmentIchimasa Kamaboko Co., LtdNiigataJapan

Personalised recommendations