Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 442–448 | Cite as

Naringenin interferes with the anti-diabetic actions of pioglitazone via pharmacodynamic interactions

  • Hiroki YoshidaEmail author
  • Rika Tsuhako
  • Toshiyuki Atsumi
  • Keiko Narumi
  • Wataru Watanabe
  • Chihiro Sugita
  • Masahiko Kurokawa


Pioglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) full agonist and useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Naringenin is a citrus flavonoid with anti-inflammatory actions, which has been shown to prevent obesity-related diseases and to activate PPARγ. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary naringenin affects the actions of pioglitazone. We administered naringenin (100 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) to Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice for 4 weeks and then conducted an oral glucose tolerance test. We found that oral administration of naringenin attenuated the hypoglycemic action of pioglitazone in TSOD mice. However, pioglitazone and naringenin did not affect fasting blood glucose levels, epididymal fat pad weight and body weight changes in this administration period. Pioglitazone suppressed expression of obesity-related adipokines such as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in adipose tissue of TSOD mice, but this effect was attenuated by naringenin. However, naringenin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone after single or repeated administration. Naringenin exhibited weak partial agonist activity in time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, but naringenin interfered with pioglitazone agonism, consistent with partial agonism. Our results suggest that it is advisable to avoid administering a combination of naringenin and pioglitazone.


Naringenin Pioglitazone PPARγ Food−drug interaction 



We are grateful to Ms. Yukiko Shimoda, Ms. Momoko Kawano, and Ms. Chiaki Shin. (Kyushu University of Health and Welfare) for their kind support and helpful suggestions. This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant Nos. 24790182 and 15K18949 to H. Yoshida) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Clinical PharmacyKyushu University of Health and WelfareNobeokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Clinical PharmacyKyushu University of Health and WelfareNobeokaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Graduate School of Clinical PharmacyKyushu University of Health and WelfareNobeokaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Clinical PharmacyKyushu University of Health and WelfareNobeokaJapan

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