Aged garlic extract suppresses platelet aggregation by changing the functional property of platelets
- 338 Downloads
Aged garlic extract (AGE), a garlic preparation rich in water-soluble cysteinyl moieties, has been reported to have multiple beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease including inhibition of platelet aggregation. However, the mode of AGE action on platelets has not been clear. In this study, we examined the effect of AGE on the functional property of platelet by administering AGE to rats and evaluating the platelet aggregation in response to collagen in vitro. We found that AGE treatment significantly reduced the ability of platelet to aggregate and this effect of AGE was manifested on the 14 day, but not 7 day of treatment. In addition, AGE treatment produced platelets that responded to collagen by significantly increasing the amount of both the extracellular ATP and the extra- and intracellular TXB2. AGE treatment also dose-dependently suppressed the phosphorylation of collagen-induced ERK, p38 and JNK. However, AGE administration did not affect the bleeding time. These findings suggest that AGE treatment results in suppression of platelet aggregation by changing the functional property of platelets to respond to collagen.
KeywordsAged garlic extract Collagen MAP kinase P2X1 receptor Platelet aggregation Rat Thromboxane receptor
The authors thank Dr. Takami Oka, Dr. Koichi Tamura and Mr. Hirotaka Amano of Wakunaga Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. for their helpful advise, encouragement and critical reading of the manuscript, and Dr. Kazuhiko Imamura and Dr. Yukihiro Kodera, Wakunaga Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., for preparation of AGE.
- 17.Ahmadi N, Nabavi V, Hajsadeghi F, Zeb I, Flores F, Ebrahimi R, Budoff M (2013) Aged garlic extract with supplement is associated with increase in brown adipose, decrease in white adipose tissue and predict lack of progression in coronary atherosclerosis. Int J Cardiol 168:2310–2314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Budoff MJ, Ahmadi N, Gul KM, Liu ST, Flores FR, Tiano J, Takasu J, Miller E, Tsimikas S (2009) Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and l-arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized clinical trial. Prev Med 49:101–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Matsumoto S, Nakanishi R, Li D, Alani A, Rezaeian P, Prabhu S, Abraham J, Fahmy MA, Dailing C, Flores F, Hamal S, Broersen A, Kitslaar PH, Budoff MJ (2016) Aged garlic extract reduces low attenuation plaque in coronary arteries of patients with metabolic syndrome in a prospective randomized double-blind study. J Nutr 146:427S–432SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.United States Pharmacopeial Convention I (2015) United States Pharmacopoeia 38 Garlic Fluidextract USP 38-NF 33. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, pp 6052–6055Google Scholar
- 31.Kodera Y, Matsuura H, Sumiyoshi H, Sumi S (2003) Garlic chemistry: chemical and biological properties of sulfur-containing compounds derived from garlic. In: Shahidi F (ed) Food factors in health promotion and disease prevention. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp 346–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Mangin P, Yuan Y, Goncalves I, Eckly A, Freund M, Cazenave JP, Gachet C, Jackson SP, Lanza F (2003) Signaling role for phospholipase C gamma 2 in platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha calcium flux and cytoskeletal reorganization. Involvement of a pathway distinct from FcR gamma chain and Fc gamma RIIA. J Biol Chem 278:32880–32891CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar