Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 70, Issue 3, pp 539–553 | Cite as

Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats

  • Samah A. El-NewaryEmail author
  • A. M. Sulieman
  • S. R. El-Attar
  • M. Z. Sitohy
Original Paper


Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma (“CDNP extract”). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid metabolism of healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats and can be employed in the management of dietary hyperlipidemia.

Graphical abstract


Cordia dichotoma Hypolipidemic Lipid Antioxidant Polyphenolics Mucilage 



The authors would like to thank the National Research Institute and Zagazig University for funding this research work within their ordinary research budgets. No other funding was received from any other party that may affect the results, either directly or indirectly. The authors wish to acknowledge Associate Professor Dr. Mohsen S. Askar, Microbial Biotechnology Department, and Associate Professor Dr. Abeer Y. Ibraheem, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors would like to confirm the absence of any conflict of interest associated with the implementation or the publication of this work.

Supplementary material

11418_2016_973_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (72 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (JPEG 73 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samah A. El-Newary
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. M. Sulieman
    • 2
  • S. R. El-Attar
    • 3
  • M. Z. Sitohy
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants ResearchNational Research CenterGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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