Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp 561–566 | Cite as

Acylated phenylethanoid glycosides, echinacoside and acteoside from Cistanche tubulosa, improve glucose tolerance in mice

  • Toshio Morikawa
  • Kiyofumi Ninomiya
  • Mio Imamura
  • Junji Akaki
  • Shota Fujikura
  • Yingni Pan
  • Dan Yuan
  • Masayuki Yoshikawa
  • Xiaoguang Jia
  • Zheng Li
  • Osamu MuraokaEmail author
Original Paper


Acylated phenylethanoid glycosides, echinacoside (1) and acteoside (2), principal constituents in stems of Cistanche tubulosa (Orobanchaceae), inhibited the increase in postprandial blood glucose levels in starch-loaded mice at doses of 250–500 mg/kg p.o. These compounds (1 and 2) also significantly improved glucose tolerance in starch-loaded mice after 2 weeks of continuous administration at doses of 125 and/or 250 mg/kg/day p.o. without producing significant changes in body weight or food intake. In addition, several constituents from C. tubulosa, including 1 (IC50 = 3.1 μM), 2 (1.2 μM), isoacteoside (3, 4.6 μM), 2′-acetylacteoside (4, 0.071 μM), tubulosides A (5, 8.8 μM) and B (9, 4.0 μM), syringalide A 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (10, 1.1 μM), campneoside I (13, 0.53 μM), and kankanoside J1 (14, 9.3 μM), demonstrated potent rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory activity. In particular, the potency of compound 4 was similar to that of epalrestat (0.072 μM), a clinical aldose reductase inhibitor.


Echinacoside Acteoside Glucose tolerance improvement effect Aldose reductase inhibitor Cistanche tubulosa 



This work was supported in part by a Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI a Grant Number 24590153 and The Japan–China Medical Association for the financial support.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshio Morikawa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kiyofumi Ninomiya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mio Imamura
    • 1
  • Junji Akaki
    • 1
  • Shota Fujikura
    • 1
  • Yingni Pan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Dan Yuan
    • 3
  • Masayuki Yoshikawa
    • 1
  • Xiaoguang Jia
    • 4
  • Zheng Li
    • 5
  • Osamu Muraoka
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Pharmaceutical Research and Technology InstituteKinki UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Antiaging CentreKinki UniversityOsakaJapan
  3. 3.School of Traditional Chinese MedicinesShenyang Pharmaceutical UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Xinjiang Institute of Chinese Materia Medica and EthnodrugÜrümqiPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Eishin Trading Co., Ltd.OsakaJapan

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