Astragaloside content in the periderm, cortex, and xylem of Astragalus membranaceus root
- 401 Downloads
Astragalosides are among the most predominant of the bioactive compounds in the root of Astragalus membranaceus and are differentially concentrated depending on the anatomical part of the root in question. The aim of this study was to analyse astragaloside contents in the periderm, cortex, and xylem of A. membranaceus root, and to compare the contents between peeled and unpeeled roots. Total astragalosides in the periderm were about 8-fold more concentrated than in the cortex, and 28-fold more concentrated than in the xylem. The dry weight percentages of total astragalosides in primary roots were 43.5 % in the periderm, 47.2 % in the cortex, and 9.30 % in the xylem. Furthermore, unpeeled main (primary) roots were enriched in astragalosides by 1.46-fold compared with peeled main roots, whereas unpeeled lateral roots were enriched by 2.33-fold compared with peeled lateral roots. In conclusion, the periderm is the most astragaloside-rich part of the root of A. membranaceus. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the periderm in order to supply astragaloside-rich roots for use as health food supplements.
KeywordsAstragalus membranaceus Astragaloside Periderm Peeled root Unpeeled root
This work was supported by a grant from the Kyung Hee University in 2012 (KHU-20120766).
Conflict of interest
None of the authors have any financial, personal, or institutional interests that might create a potential conflict of interest or the appearance of a conflict of interest in this research.
- 1.KFDA (2007) Korean pharmacopoeia, 9th edn. Shinil Books Co Ltd, SeoulGoogle Scholar
- 2.Zheng KY, Choi RC, Cheung AW, Guo AJ, Bi CW, Zhu KY, Fu Q, Du Y, Zhang WL, Zhan JY, Duan R, Lau DT, Dong TT, Tsim KW (2011) Flavonoids from Radix Astragali induce the expression of erythropoietin in cultured cells: a signaling mediated via the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. J Agric Food Chem 59:1697–1704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Gao XH, Xu XX, Pan R, Li Y, Luo YB, Xia YF, Murata K, Matsuda H, Dai Y (2009) Saponin fraction from Astragalus membranaceus roots protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture by inhibiting inflammation and upregulating protein C pathway. J Nat Med 63:421–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Zhang Y, Hu G, Lin HC, Hong SJ, Deng YH, Tang JY, Seto SW, Kwan YW, Waye MM, Wang YT, Lee SM (2009) Radix Astragali extract promotes angiogenesis involving vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-related phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway in human endothelial cells. Phytother Res 23:1205–1213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Gariboldi P, Pelizzoni F, Tatò M, Verotta L, el-Sebakhy N, Asaad AM, Abdallah RM, Toaima SM (1995) Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from Astragalus trigonus. Phytochemistry 40:1755–1760Google Scholar
- 15.Pistelli L (2002) Secondary metabolites of genus Astragalus: structure and biological activity. In: Atta-Ur-Rahman (ed) Studies in natural products chemistry (Bioactive natural products, Part H). Elsevier, Karachi, pp 443–545Google Scholar
- 22.Zhang W, Zhang C, Liu R, Li H, Zhang J, Mao C, Chen C (2005) Quantitative determination of astragaloside IV, a natural product with cardioprotective activity, in plasma, urine and other biological samples by HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 822:170–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar