Citronellol, a monoterpene alcohol, reduces nociceptive and inflammatory activities in rodents
- 681 Downloads
We describe the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of citronellol (CT) in rodents. CT, a monoterpene alcohol, is a naturally occurring monoterpene compound prevalent in essential oils of various aromatic plant species, such as Cymbopogon citratus. In mice, when evaluated against acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, CT (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced (P < 0.001) the amount of writhing compared to the control group. In the formalin test, CT also significantly inhibited both the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain) phases of formalin-induced licking (P < 0.001). When assessed in a thermal model of pain, CT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the latency response on the hot-plate test. Such results were unlikely to be caused by motor abnormality. The anti-inflammatory activity of CT was investigated through carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice. Pretreatment with CT was able to inhibit both neutrophil infiltration and the increase in TNF-α level in the exudates from carrageenan-induced pleurisy. In in vitro experiments, CT (1 and 100 μg/ml) also decreased nitric oxide production by LPS-stimulated macrophage. Together, these results indicate that CT is effective as an analgesic compound in various pain models, with its action probably mediated by the inhibition of peripheral mediators as well as central inhibitory mechanisms that could be related to its strong antioxidant effect observed in vitro.
KeywordsMonoterpenes Citronellol Pain Inflammation TNF-α
We thank Mr. Osvaldo Andrade Santos for technical support. This work was supported by grants from the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico/CNPq/Brazil) (grant number 305783/2010-6 and 470774/2011-8) and the Research Supporting Foundation of the State of Sergipe (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa e à Inovação Tecnológica do Estado de Sergipe/FAPITEC-SE) (grant number 019.203.00860/2009-6), Brazil.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflict of interest.
- 4.Li JWH, Vederas JC (2009) Drug discovery and natural products: end of an era or an endless frontier? Science 161:325Google Scholar
- 6.Silva MAG, Aquino Neto MR, Moura BA, Sousa HL, Lavor EPH, Vasconcelos PF, Macêdo DS, De Sousa DP, Vasconcelos SMM, Sousa FCF (2009) Effects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity. Fitoterapia 80:506–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Siqueira RS, Bonjardim LR, Araujo AAS, Araújo BES, Melo MGD, Oliveira MGB, Gelain DP, Silva FA, Desantana JM, Rocha RF, Moreira JCF, Antoniolli AR, Quintans-Júnior LJ (2010) Antinociceptive activity of atranorin in mice orofacial nociception tests. Z Naturforsch C 65:551–561Google Scholar
- 12.Guimarães AG, Oliveira GF, Melo MS, Cavalcanti SCH, Antoniolli AR, Bonjardim LR, Silva FA, Santos JPA, Rocha RF, Moreira JCF, Araújo AAS, Gelain DP, Quintans-Júnior LJ (2010) Bioassay-guided evaluation of antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of carvacrol. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 107:949–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Quintans-Júnior LJ, Melo MS, De Sousa DP, Araújo AAS, Onofre ACS, Gelain DP, Gonçalves JCR, Araújo DAM, Almeida JRGS, Bonjardim LR (2010) Antinociceptive activity of citronellal in formalin-, capsaicin- and glutamate-induced orofacial pain in rodents and its action on nerve excitability. J Orofac Pain 24:305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Quintans-Júnior LJ, Silva DA, Siqueira JS, Araújo AAS, Barreto RSS, Bonjardim LR, DeSantana JM, De Lucca Junior W, Souza MFV, Gutierrez SJC, Barbosa-Filho JM, Santana-Filho VJ, Araújo DAM, Almeida RN (2010) Bioassay-guided evaluation of antinociceptive effect of N-Salicyloyltryptamine: a behavioral and electrophysiological approach. J Biomed Biotechnol 230745. doi: 10.1155/2010/230745
- 18.Tavares ES, Julião LS, Lopes D, Bizzo HR, Lage CLS, Leitão SG (2005) Análise do óleo essencial de folhas de quimiotipos de Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. (Verbenaceae) cultivados em condições semelhantes. Braz J Pharmacog 15:1–5Google Scholar
- 21.Moreira FV, Fraga BP, Quintans-Júnior LJ, De Sousa DP, Bonjardim LR, Santos MRV(2011) Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review. Rev Bras Farmacognosia 21:764–771Google Scholar
- 22.Manjavachi MN, Quintão NL, Campos MM, Deschamps IK, Yunes RA, Nunes RJ, Leal PC, Calixto JB (2009) The effects of the selective and non-peptide CXCR2 receptor antagonist SB225002 on acute and long-lasting models of nociception in mice. Eur J Pain 14(1):23–31 (Epub Mar 4)Google Scholar
- 33.Mogil JS (2009) Animal models of pain progress and challenges. Nat Rev 10:283–294Google Scholar
- 39.Parkhouse J, Pleuvry BJ (1979) Analgesic drug. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 1–5Google Scholar