Advertisement

Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 336–343 | Cite as

Sedative effects of vapor inhalation of the essential oil of Microtoena patchoulii and its related compounds

  • Ken Ito
  • Michiho ItoEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Microtoena patchoulii (Labiatae) is a perennial herb that grows in southern China. In the present study, the sedative activity of the essential oil of the leaves was evaluated using mice when the volatile oil was administered by inhalation. The inhalation of the oil by mice significantly reduced the spontaneous motor activity. Fractionation of the oil revealed that the main constituents in the oil were 1-octen-3-ol, terpinolene, patchouli alcohol, and methyl salicylate. Each 1-octen-3-ol, terpinolene, or patchouli alcohol significantly reduce the locomotor activity when it was administered singly. However, the essential oil fraction containing both patchouli alcohol and methyl salicylate did not exhibit any effects. It is suggested that methyl salicylate might negate the sedative effect of patchouli alcohol, and that the concentration ratios of the compounds in vapor would play important roles as sedatives. In order to clarify the mechanism of action, the effects of these compounds on caffeine-induced excitation and pentobarbital-induced elongation of sleeping time in mice were tested. Each 1-octen-3-ol or terpinolene reduced the locomotor activity excited by caffeine to those of normal levels. Elongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital was further elongated by the inhalation of terpinolene, but not by that of 1-octen-3-ol. It is indicated that terpinolene is a potent suppressor of the central nervous system.

Keywords

Microtoena patchoulii Labiatae Sedative effect Inhalation 1-Octen-3-ol Terpinolene 

References

  1. 1.
    Senpuku M, Nonaka K, Ito M, Honda G (2007) Chemical composition of the essential oil of Microtoena patchoulii [(C.B. Clarke ex J.D. Hooker) C.Y. Wu et Hsuan]. J Essent Oil Res 19:336–337Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhao Z, Lu J, Leung K, Chan CL, Jiang ZH (2005) Determination of patchoulic alcohol in Herba Pogostemonis by GC–MS–MS. Chem Pharm Bull 53:856–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sinha D, Efron D (2005) Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Paediatr Child Health 41:23–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Takemoto H, Ito M, Shiraki T, Yagura T, Honda G (2008) Sedative effects of vapor inhalation of agarwood oil and spikenard extract and identification of their active components. J Nat Med 62:41–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Takemoto H, Yagura T, Ito M (2009) Evaluation of volatile components from spikenard: valerena-4,7(11)-diene is a highly active sedative compound. J Nat Med 63:380–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The Society of Japanese Pharmacopoeia (2007) The Japanese Pharmacopoeia Fifteenth Edition (JP XV). Yakuji-Nippo, Tokyo, p 99Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aleu J, Hanson JR, Galán RH, Collado IG (1999) Biotransformation of the fungistatic sesquiterpenoid patchoulol by Botrytis cinerea. J Nat Prod 62:437–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bais HP, Dattatreya BS, Ravishankar GA (2003) Production of volatile compounds by hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus L. under the influence of fungal elicitors and their analysis using solid-phase micro extraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Sci Food Agric 83:769–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wallenstein S, Zucker CL, Fleiss JL (1980) Some statistical methods useful in circulation research. Circ Res 47:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mochizuki M, Akagi K, Inoue K, Shimamura K (1998) A single dose toxicity study of magnesium sulfate in rats and dogs. J Toxicol Sci 1:31–35Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    RIFM EXPERT Panel, Belsito D, Bickers D, Bruze M, Calow P, Greim H, Hanifin JM, Rogers AE, Saurat JH, Sipes IG, Tagami H (2008) A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of cyclic and non-cyclic terpene alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients. Food Chem Toxicol 11:S1–S71Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Posternak JM, Dufour JJ, Rogg C, Vodoz CA (1975) Toxicological tests on flavouring matters. II. Pyrazines and other compounds. Food Cosmet Toxicol 13:487–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grassmann J, Hippeli S, Spitzenberger R, Elstner EF (2005) The monoterpene terpinolene from the oil of Pinus mugo L. in concert with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene effectively prevents oxidation of LDL. Phytomedicine 12:416–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Komiya M, Takeuchi T, Harada E (2006) Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice. Behav Brain Res 172:240–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mathews DF (1972) Response patterns of single neurons in the tortoise olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. J Gen Physiol 60:166–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chitarra GS, Abee T, Rombouts FM, Dijksterhuis J (2005) 1-Octen-3-ol inhibits conidia germination of Penicillium paneum despite of mild effects on membrane permeability, respiration, intracellular pH, and changes the protein composition. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 54:67–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McMahon C, Guerin PM, Syed Z (2001) 1-Octen-3-ol isolated from bont ticks attracts Amblyomma variegatum. J Chem Ecol 27:471–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sawahata T, Shimano S, Suzuki M (2008) Tricholoma matsutake 1-ocen-3-ol and methyl cinnamate repel mycophagous Proisotoma minuta (Collembola: Insecta). Mycorrhiza 18:111–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ramoni R, Vincent F, Grolli S, Conti V, Malosse C, Boyer FD, Nagnan-Le Meillour P, Spinelli S, Cambillau C, Tegoni M (2001) The insect attractant 1-octen-3-ol is the natural ligand of bovine odorant-binding protein. J Biol Chem 276:7150–7155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Linck VM, da Silva AL, Figueiró M, Piato AL, Herrmann AP, Dupont Birck F, Caramão EB, Nunes DS, Moreno PR, Elisabetsky E (2009) Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice. Phytomedicine 16:303–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lapczynski A, Jones L, McGinty D, Bhatia SP, Letizia CS, Api AM (2007) Fragrance material review on methyl salicylate. Food Chem Toxicol 45:S428–S452 (Safety data for methyl salicylate)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bhatia SP, Letizia CS, Api AM (2008) Fragrance material review on patchouli alcohol. Food Chem Toxicol 46:S255–S256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Taniguchi Y, Deguchi Y, Saita M, Noda K (1994) Antinociceptive effects of counterirritants. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 104:433–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Block LL, Goon DJW, Rolf D (1998) Inhalation therapy decongestant with foraminous carrier. United States Patent 6090403Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G (1992) Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 17:139–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chweh AY, Swinyard EA, Wolf HH (1987) Hypnotic action of pentobarbital in mice: a possible mechanism. Exp Neurol 97:70–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sadre NL, Tiwari NM (1966) Prolongation of chloral hydrate and pentobarbitone sleeping time by chlorpromazine and histamine in mice. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 163:6–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tsuchiya T, Tanida M, Uenoyama S, Nakayama Y, Ozawa T (1991) Effects of olfactory stimulation on the sleep time induced by pentobarbital administration in mice. Brain Res Bull 26:397–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Koo BS, Park KS, Ha JH, Park JH, Lim JC, Lee DU (2003) Inhibitory effects of the fragrance inhalation of essential oil from Acorus gramineus on central nervous system. Biol Pharm Bull 26:978–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations