In this study, we examine citizens’ perceptions of police–community relationships in India. More specifically, in this exploratory study, we examine the extent to which factors such as general satisfaction with police services, police professionalism, feeling of safety, and perception of police integrity all explain the public confidence in police–citizen relationships. Those who are generally satisfied with police like to work with police and view police–community relationships positively. Further, we find that those who feel police are fair in dealing with citizens, irrespective of social status, and those who feel more safe in their communities are those who are most willing to work with police.
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We acknowledge that it is difficult to compare Indian income levels with the U.S. or other developed economies. Though the average Indian annual income is about $500, given the size of the country with nearly 1.2 billion population and a 30% urban population, it has been estimated that 31.3% of Indian households had a disposable income of US$2,500–5,000 (Euromonitor International 2008). http://motherchildnutrition.org/india/pdf/mcn-annual-gross-income.pdf Accessed May 10. 2011. The range of this income generally represents urban India’s household income. The average household income in cities such as Delhi and Mumbai are in 2007 were over INR 400,000 (about US$9,200) (The Economic Times 8/28/2010). http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2008-08-08/news/28447653_1_consumption-expenditure-cities-account-household Accessed May 10, 2011.
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Nalla, M.K., Madan, M. Determinants of Citizens’ Perceptions of Police–Community Cooperation in India: Implications for Community Policing. Asian Criminology 7, 277–294 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11417-011-9110-2