Skip to main content

Comparing For-Profit and Nonprofit Mental Health Services in County Jails

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1

Notes

  1. The research team assessed outcomes by geography to evaluate the impact rural jails had on mental health service outcomes, given that they have only nonprofit providers. Rural jails accounted for one-quarter (26%) of the nonprofit subsample and had significantly lower proportions of identification, referral, and services, compared with their metropolitan and urban counterparts. Thus, rural jails do not account for the differences in outcomes between nonprofit and for-profit providers.

References

  1. Teplin LA. Psychiatric and substance abuse disorders among male urban jail detainees. American Journal of Public Health. 1994;84(2):290-293.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Teplin LA. The prevalence of severe mental disorder among male urban jail detainees: comparison with the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. American Journal of Public Health. 1990;80(6):663-669.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Lurigio AJ. Persons with serious mental illness in the criminal justice system: Background, prevalence, and principles of care. Criminal Justice Policy Review. 2000;11(4):312-328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Lynch SM, DeHart DD, Belknap JE, et al. A multisite study of the prevalence of serious mental illness, PTSD, and substance use disorders of women in jail. Psychiatric Services. 2014;65(5):670-674.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Steadman HJ, Osher FC, Robbins PC, et al. Prevalence of serious mental illness among jail inmates. Psychiatric Services. 2009;60(6):761-765.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Klein SB. Prisoners’ Rights to Physical and Mental Health Care: A Modern Expansion of the Eighth Amendment’s Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause. Fordham Urban Law Journal. 1978;7:1.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Ogloff JR, Roesch R, Hart SD. Mental health services in jails and prisons: Legal, clinical, and policy issues. Law & Psychology Review. 1994;18:109.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hoard SL. Prisoners’ Rights--Bowring v. Godwin: The Limited Right of State Prisoners to Psychological and Psychiatric Treatment. North Carolina Law Review. 1978;56:612.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Recommendations and Guidance about Correctional Health. Published December 14, 2018. Available online at https://www.cdc.gov/correctionalhealth/rec-guide.html. Accessed on January 28, 2020.

  10. National Commission on Correctional Health Care. Standards: A framework for quality. Published 2018. Available online at https://www.ncchc.org/standards. Accessed on January 28, 2020.

  11. Andrews J. The Current State of Public and Private Prison Healthcare. Wharton Public Policy Initiative. Published 2017. Available online at https://publicpolicy.wharton.upenn.edu/live/news/1736-the-current-state-of-public-and-private-prison. Accessed on July 1, 2020.

  12. Daniel AE. Care of the Mentally Ill in Prisons: Challenges and Solutions. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. 2007;35(4):5.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S, Hellander I, et al. Quality of Care in Investor-Owned vs Not-for-Profit HMOs. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999;282(2):159-163. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.2.159.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Yoon J. Effect of increased private share of inpatient psychiatric resources on jail population growth: Evidence from the United States. Social Science & Medicine. 2011;72(4):447-455. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.07.023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Brady BM, Zhao B, Niu J, et al. Patient-Reported Experiences of Dialysis Care Within a National Pay-for-Performance System. Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine. 2018;178(10):1358-1367. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.3756.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Gander JC, Zhang X, Ross K, et al. Association Between Dialysis Facility Ownership and Access to Kidney Transplantation. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2019;322(10):957-973. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.12803.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Rosenau PV, Linder SH. Two Decades of Research Comparing For-Profit and Nonprofit Health Provider Performance in the United States. Social Science Quarterly. 2003;84(2):219-241. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6237.8402001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Lundahl BW, Kunz C, Brownell C, et al. Prison Privatization: A Meta-analysis of Cost and Quality of Confinement Indicators. Research on Social Work Practice. 2009;19(4):383-394. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731509331946.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. The Pew Charitable Trusts, The MacArthur Foundation. State Prison Health Care Spending. Published online 2014:32.

  20. Baćak V, Ridgeway G. Availability of Health-Related Programs in Private and Public Prisons. Journal of Correctional Health Care. 2018;24(1):62-70. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1078345817728078.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Leeson S, Stateside Staff. Despite increased state supervision, expert says private prison health care comes at a cost. NPR. Published 2018. Available online at https://www.michiganradio.org/post/despite-increased-state-supervision-expert-says-private-prison-health-care-comes-cost. Accessed on July 6, 2020.

  22. Dumont DM, Brockmann B, Dickman S, et al. Public Health and the Epidemic of Incarceration. Annual Review of Public Health. 2012;33:325-339. doi:https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031811-124614.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Henrichson C, Rinaldi J, Delaney R. The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration. The Vera Institute of Justice; 2015:36. Available online at https://www.vera.org/publications/the-price-of-jails-measuring-the-taxpayer-cost-of-local-incarceration. Accessed on July 16th, 2020.

  24. Lindsey AM, Mears DP, Cochran JC. The Privatization Debate: A Conceptual Framework for Improving (Public and Private) Corrections. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 2016;32(4):308-327. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986216660006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Office of the State Inspector General of the Commonwealth of Virginia. A Review of Mental Health Services in Local and Regional Jails. Published online 2014:88.

  26. Kil Huh, Boucher A, McGaffey F, et al. Jails: Inadvertent Health Care Providers. The Pew Charitable Trusts; 2018. Available online at https://www.pewtrusts.org/-/media/assets/2018/01/sfh_jails_inadvertent_health_care_providers.pdf. Accessed January 21, 2020.

  27. Hayes A, Senior J, Fahy T, et al. Actions taken in response to mental health screening at reception into prison. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology. 2014;25(4):371-379. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/14789949.2014.911947.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Brooker C, Gojkovic D. The second national survey of mental health in-reach services in prisons. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology. 2009;20(sup1):S11-S28. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/14789940802638325.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kaba F, Solimo A, Graves J, et al. Disparities in Mental Health Referral and Diagnosis in the New York City Jail Mental Health Service. American Journal of Public Health. 2015;105(9):1911-1916. doi:https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302699.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Senior J, Birmingham L, Harty MA, et al. Identification and management of prisoners with severe psychiatric illness by specialist mental health services. Psychological Medicine. 2013;43(7):1511-1520. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712002073.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Scheyett A, Vaughn J, Taylor MF. Screening and Access to Services for Individuals with Serious Mental Illnesses in Jails. Community Mental Health Journal. 2009;45(6):439-446. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-009-9204-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Veysey BM. In search of the missing linkages: continuity of care in U.S. jails. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. 1997;15:15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Young DS. Non-Psychiatric Services Provided in a Mental Health Unit in a County Jail. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 2002;35(2):63-82. doi:https://doi.org/10.1300/J076v35n02_05.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine. 2002;32(6):959-976. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291702006074.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Kessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, et al. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2003;60(2):184-189. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.2.184.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Kubiak SP, Beeble M, Bybee D. Comparing the validity of the K6 when assessing depression, anxiety, and PTSD among male and female jail detainees. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology. 2012;56(8):1220-1238. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X11420106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Kubiak SP, Beeble ML, Bybee D. Using the K6 to Assess the Mental Health of Jailed Women. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 2009;48(4):296-313. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/10509670902849038.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Pimlott Kubiak S, Beeble ML, Bybee D. Testing the Validity of the K6 in Detecting Major Depression and PTSD Among Jailed Women. Criminal Justice & Behavior. 2010;37(1):64-80. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854809348139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Novick LF, Remmlinger E. A Study of 128 Deaths in New York City Correctional Facilities (1971-1976): Implications for Prisoner Health Care. Medical Care. 1978;16(9):749-756.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. US Department of Justice. Treatment and Care of Inmates with Mental Illness. Federal Bureau of Prisons; 2014. Accessed April 10, 2020. U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Prisons. (2014). Treatment and Care of Inmates with Mental Illness (Report Number 5310.16). Available online at https://www.bop.gov/policy/progstat/5310_16.pdf. Accessed July 16th, 2020.

  41. AAPL Practice Resource for Prescribing in Corrections. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law. 2018;46(2):50.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Pharmaceuticals in State Prisons. The Pew Charitable Trusts; 2017. Available online at https://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/assets/2017/12/pharmaceuticals-in-state-prisons.pdf. Accessed on July 16th, 2020.

  43. Reingle Gonzalez JM, Connell NM. Mental Health of Prisoners: Identifying Barriers to Mental Health Treatment and Medication Continuity. American Journal of Public Health. 2014;104(12):2328-2333. doi:https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302043.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System. Incarceration Effects on Medicaid Status. Published 2019. Available online at http://pdaps.org/datasets/medicaid-funded-mat-for-justice-involved-persons-1565019237. Accessed January 27, 2020.

  45. Green TC, Clarke J, Brinkley-Rubinstein L, et al. Postincarceration Fatal Overdoses After Implementing Medications for Addiction Treatment in a Statewide Correctional System. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry. 2018;75(4):405-407. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4614.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Fisher WH, Hartwell SW, Deng X, et al. Recidivism Among Released State Prison Inmates Who Received Mental Health Treatment While Incarcerated. Crime & Delinquency. 2014;60(6):811-832. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128714541204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Perrone D, Pratt TC. Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public versus Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go from Here. The Prison Journal. 2003;83(3):301-322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was funded by the Governor’s Mental Health Diversion Council and the Michigan Department of Health & Human Services.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Erin Comartin PhD.

Ethics declarations

This study was reviewed and approved by the authors’ Institutional Review Board (2018-55).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Comartin, E., Nelson, V., Hambrick, N. et al. Comparing For-Profit and Nonprofit Mental Health Services in County Jails. J Behav Health Serv Res 48, 320–329 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-020-09733-1

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-020-09733-1