Predictors of Labor Force Status in a Random Sample of Consumers with Serious Mental Illness
- 5 Downloads
Employment among persons with severe mental illness has been challenging. Supported employment programs have had some success; however, much remains to be understood about client motivations for employment. A labor force participation study was mailed to persons receiving services in a Midwestern state’s publicly funded behavioral health system, and a random sample of participants resulted in 964 valid surveys. Analysis showed significant differences between Medicaid coverage program and labor force status, with some programs likely to have higher percentages of employed persons. A multinomial logistic regression model explored the odds of employment and unemployment to not being in the labor force. Perception of incentives to employment greatly increased the odds, while age and perception of barriers to employment decreased the odds for both groups when compared to those not in the labor force. Findings have implications for the design of employment programs and coverage benefits.
KeywordsSerious mental illness Incentives and barriers to employment Medicaid MHSIP Consumer surveys
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 1.Goldstrom ID, Manderscheid RW. The Chronically Mentally Ill: A Descriptive Analysis from the Uniform Client Data Instrument. Community Support Service Journal. 1982;23:4–9.Google Scholar
- 5.Roth D, Crane-Ross D, Hannon MJ, et al. Toward Best Practices: Top Ten Findings from the Longitudinal Consumer Outcomes Study. Columbus Ohio Department of Mental Health, Office of Program Evaluation & Research, 1999.Google Scholar
- 6.Bonnie RJ, Monahan J. Mental Disorder, Work Disability, and the Law. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.Google Scholar
- 8.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America, Final Report. HHS Publication No. SMA 03–3832, Rockville: Department of Health and Human Services, 2003.Google Scholar
- 10.Cook JA. One-Year Follow-Up of Illinois State Vocational Rehabilitation Clients with Psychiatric Disabilities Following Successful Closure into Community Employment. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. 2003;18:25–32.Google Scholar
- 18.Salyers MP, McGuire AB, Bond GR, et al. What Makes the Difference? Practitioner View of Success and Failure in Two Effective Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approaches. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. 2008;28:105–114.Google Scholar
- 19.Bickhard MH. An Integration of Motivation and Cognition. Development and Motivation: Joint Perspectives. 2003;41–56.Google Scholar
- 20.Beck JS. Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond. New York: Guilford Press, 1995.Google Scholar
- 21.Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational Interviewing, Second Edition. New York: Guildford Press, 2002.Google Scholar
- 22.Ryan RM, Deci EL. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations. Classic Definitions and New Directions: Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2000;25(1):54–67.Google Scholar
- 24.Dantzker ML, Hunter RD. Research Methods for Criminology and Criminal Justice, Third Edition. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2012.Google Scholar
- 25.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Combined Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) State Instruction Manual with State TEDS Submission System (STSS, Version 4.0) Guide. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Available online at https://wwwdasis.samhsa.gov/dasis2/manuals/Combined%20SA%20and%20MH%20TEDS%20Manual%20V4.2_6-1.pdf. Accessed on July 2, 2015.
- 26.Bureau of Labor Statistics. BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 4: Measurement of Unemployment in States and Local Areas. U.S. Department of Labor. Available online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/. Accessed on July 2, 2015 2015.
- 27.Jerrell JM. Psychometrics of the MHSIP Adult Consumer Survey. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research. 2006;33(4):483–488.Google Scholar
- 29.The Analysis Factor. How to Diagnose the Missing Data Mechanism. Statistical Resources. Available online at http://www.theanalysisfactor.com/missing-data-mechanism/. Accessed on July 1, 2015.
- 31.Alderks CE, Lutterman T, Phelan B, et al. June 15, 2015 Webinar of the 2014 Mental Health Data Collection Results URS, MH-CLD, MH-TEDS. The Behavioral Health Services Information System. Available online at https://bhsisresourcecenter.smdi.com/system/files/ADAWT/SAMHSA/2014_Mental_Health_Data_Collection_Results-Webinar_Slides_June_15.pdf. Accessed on July 14, 2015.