Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Teacher beliefs, knowledge, and practice of self-regulated learning

  • Published:
Metacognition and Learning Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This study examined teacher beliefs, knowledge, and classroom practice of self-regulated learning for ten elementary and middle school teachers. Using Zimmerman’s SRL model to frame our method and results, we administered questionnaires, observed classrooms and conducted interviews with these teachers. Teachers had positive beliefs about the role of SRL in their classroom but had some reservations about students’ ability to self-regulate at these grade levels. As revealed in interviews, teachers demonstrated gaps in knowledge in particular around goal setting for a task and evaluation after a learning event. Teachers most frequently encouraged student SRL during the monitoring phase of learning events in their classrooms. They were also able to explain most richly how to encourage student practice of metacognition in this phase. Nonetheless, just as for their own knowledge and personal practice of metacognition and SRL, gaps in teacher classroom practice emerged in the planning and evaluation stages of learning events. Cases were used to examine the alignment between teachers’ beliefs or knowledge and their classroom practice. Often the three constructs were not well aligned. Disconfirming cases were interpreted in light of other theoretical models. Our results suggest the need for continued professional development in SRL strategies and their application to practice.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Artzt, A., & Armour-Thomas, E. (1998). Mathematics teaching as problem solving: A framework for studying teacher metacognition underlying instructional practice in mathematics. Instructional Science, 26, 5–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Author (2012). Teacher knowledge, beliefs, and practice of metacognition and self-regulated learning (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.

  • Azevado, R., Moos, D., Greene, J., Winters, F., & Cromley, J. (2008). Why is externally-facilitated learning more effective than self-regulated learning with hypermedia? Education Technology Research Development, 56, 45–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barber, L., Bagsby, P., Grawitch, M., & Buerk, J. (2011). Facilitating self-regulated learning with technology: Evidence for student motivation and exam improvement. Teaching of Psychology, 38(4), 303–308.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bol, L., & Garner, J. (2011). Challenges in supporting self-regulation in distance education environments. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 23, 104–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bol, L., & Strage. (1996). The contradiction between teachers’ instructional goals and their assessment practices in high school biology courses. Science Education, 80, 145–163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boulware-Gooden, R., Carrekare, S., Thornhill, A., & Joshi, R. M. (2007). Instruction of metacognitive strategies enhances reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of third-grade students. The Reading Teacher, 61, 70–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buehl, M. M., & Fives, H. (2009). Exploring teachers’ beliefs about teaching knowledge: Where does it come from? Does it change? The Journal of Experimental Education, 77, 367–407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Butler, D. L. (2002). Individualizing instruction in self-regulated learning. Theory Into Practice, 41, 81–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calderhead, J. (1991). The nature and growth of knowledge in student teaching. Teachers and Teacher Education, 7, 531–535.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Common Core State Standards Initiative (2012). The Standards. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards.

  • Gess-Newsome, J., Southerland, S. A., Johnston, A., & Woodbury, S. (2003). Educational reform, personal practical theories, and dissatisfaction: The anatomy of change in college science teaching. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 731–767.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gibbs, S., & Powell, B. (2012). Teacher efficacy and pupil behaviour: The structure of teachers’ individual and collective beliefs and their relationship with numbers of pupils excluded from school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 564–584.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gillies, R. M., & Khan, A. (2009). Promoting reasoned argumentation, problem-solving during small-group work. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(1), 7–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greene, J. A., & Azevedo, R. (2007). A theoretical review of Winne and Hadwin’s model of self regulated learning: New perspectives and directions. Review of Educational Research, 77, 334–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hacker, D. J. (1998). Definitions and empirical foundations. In J. Dunlosky, J., Graesser, A. C., and D.J. Hacker (Eds.), Metacognition in educational in a theory and practice (1–25). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hacker, D. J., Bol, L., & Bahbahani, K. (2008). Explaining calibration accuracy in classroom contexts: The effect of incentives, reflection, and explanatory style. Metacognition and Learning, 3, 101–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, D. G., & Singh, A. A. (2012). Qualitative inquiry in clinical and educational settings. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Housand, A., & Reis, S. (2008). Self-regulated learning in reading: Gifted pedagogy and instructional settings. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20(1), 108–136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kistner, S., Rakoczy, K., Otto, B., Dignath-van Ewijk, C., Buttner, G., & Klieme, E. (2010). Promotion of self-regulated learning in classrooms: Investigating frequency, quality, and consequences for student performance. Metacognition and Learning, 5, 157–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kramarski, B., & Revach, T. (2009). The challenge of self-regulated learning mathematics teachers’ professional training. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 72, 379–399.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leou, M., Abder, P., Riordan, M., & Zoller, U. (2006). Using ’Hocs-Centered Learning’ as a pathway to promote science teachers’ metacognitive development. Research in Science Education, 36, 69–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liyanage, I., & Bartlett, B. J. (2010). From autopsy to biopsy: A metacognitive view of lesson planning and teacher trainees in ELT. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1362–1371.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lodewyk, K., Winne, P. H., & Jamieson-Noel, D. (2009). Implications of task structure regulated learning and achievement. Educational Psychology, 29(1), 1–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lombaerts, K., DeBacker, F., Engels, N., van Braak, J., & Athanasou, J. (2009). Development of the Self- Regulated Learning Teacher Belief Scale. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1, 79–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maggioni, L., & Parkinson, M. (2008). The role of teacher epistemic cognition, epistemic beliefs, and calibration in instruction. Educational Psychological Review, 20, 445–461.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nietfeld, J., Cao, L., & Osborne, J. (2005). Metacognitive monitoring accuracy and student performance in the postsecondary classroom. The Journal of Experimental Education, 74(1), 7–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nunnery, J. A., Bol, L., Dietrich, A., Rich, L., Kelly, S., Hacker, D., & Sterbin, A. (1997). Teachers’ initial reactions to their pre-implementation preparation and early restructuring experiences. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 8(1), 72–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parris, S., & Paris, A. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 89–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perels, F., Merget-Kullman, M., Wende, M., Schmitz, B., & Buchbinder, C. (2009). Improving self- regulated learning of preschool children: Evaluation of training for kindergarten teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 311–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perry, N. (1998). Young children’s self-regulated learning and contexts that support it. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 15–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perry, N. E., Hutchinson L., & Thauberger, C. (2007). Mentoring student teachers to design and implement literacy tasks that support self-regulated learning and writing. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 23, 27–50.

  • Peverly, S. J., Brobst, K. E., Graham, M., & Shaw, R. (2003). College adults are not good at self-regulation: A study on the relationship of self-regulation, note taking, and test taking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 335–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 491–501). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Randi, J. (2004). Teachers as self-regulated learners. Teachers College Record, 106(9), 1825–1853.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schraw, G. (1998). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. Instructional Science, 26, 113–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sinatra, G. M., & Kardash, C. M. (2004). Teacher candidates’ epistemological beliefs, dispositions, and views on teaching as persuasion. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(4), 483–498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sitzmann, T., & Ely, K. (2011). A meta-analysis of self-regulated learning: What we know and where we need to go. Psychological Bulletin, 137(3), 441–442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stright, A. D., Neitzel, C., Sears, K. G., & Hoke-Sinex, L. (2001). Instruction begins in the home: Relations between parental instruction and children’s self-regulation in the classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(3), 456–466.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, I. M., & Ntoumanis, N. (2007). Teacher motivational strategies and student self-determination in physical education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 747–760.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, N. S., & Bai, H. (2010). The relationships and impact of teachers’ metacognitive knowledge and pedagogical understandings. Metacognition and Learning, 5, 269–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winne, P. H., & Hadwin, A. F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated learning. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 277–304). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woolfolk Hoy, A., Davis, H., & Pape, S. (2006). Teacher knowledge and beliefs. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 717–737). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 64–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166–183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J., & Moylan, A. R. (2009). Self-regulation: Where metacognition and motivation intersect. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of metacognition in education (pp. 299–315). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman B., J., & Schunk, D. H., (Eds.). (1989). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Springer.

  • Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (1996). Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robin Spruce.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Spruce, R., Bol, L. Teacher beliefs, knowledge, and practice of self-regulated learning. Metacognition Learning 10, 245–277 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-014-9124-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-014-9124-0

Keywords

Navigation