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Differential Privacy via a Truncated and Normalized Laplace Mechanism

Abstract

When querying databases containing sensitive information, the privacy of individuals stored in the database has to be guaranteed. Such guarantees are provided by differentially private mechanisms which add controlled noise to the query responses. However, most such mechanisms do not take into consideration the valid range of the query being posed. Thus, noisy responses that fall outside of this range may potentially be produced. To rectify this and therefore improve the utility of the mechanism, the commonly-used Laplace distribution can be truncated to the valid range of the query and then normalized. However, such a data-dependent operation of normalization leaks additional information about the true query response, thereby violating the differential privacy guarantee. Here, we propose a new method which preserves the differential privacy guarantee through a careful determination of an appropriate scaling parameter for the Laplace distribution. We adapt the privacy guarantee in the context of the Laplace distribution to account for data-dependent normalization factors and study this guarantee for different classes of range constraint configurations. We provide derivations of the optimal scaling parameter (i.e., the minimal value that preserves differential privacy) for each class or provide an approximation thereof. As a result of this work, one can use the Laplace distribution to answer queries in a range-adherent and differentially private manner. To demonstrate the benefits of our proposed method of normalization, we present an experimental comparison against other range-adherent mechanisms. We show that our proposed approach is able to provide improved utility over the alternative mechanisms.

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Correspondence to William Croft.

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Croft, W., Sack, JR. & Shi, W. Differential Privacy via a Truncated and Normalized Laplace Mechanism. J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 37, 369–388 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11390-020-0193-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11390-020-0193-z

Keywords

  • differential privacy
  • Laplace mechanism
  • query range constraint