A Flocking-Based on Demand Routing Protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
- 112 Downloads
The interest shown by some community of researchers to autonomous drones or UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) has increased with the advent of wireless communication networks. These networks allow UAVs to cooperate more efficiently in an ad hoc manner in order to achieve specific tasks in specific environments. To do so, each drone navigates autonomously while staying connected with other nodes in its group via radio links. This connectivity can deliberately be maintained for a while constraining the mobility of the drones. This will be suitable for the drones involved in a given path of a given transmission between a source and a destination. This constraint could be removed at the end of the transmission process and the mobility of each concerned drone becomes again independent from the others. In this work, we proposed a flocking-based routing protocol for UAVs called BR-AODV. The protocol takes advantage of a well known ad hoc routing protocol for on-demand route computation, and the Boids of Reynolds mechanism for connectivity and route maintaining while data is being transmitted. Moreover, an automatic ground base stations discovery mechanism has been introduced for a proactive drones and ground networks association needed for the context of real-time applications. The performance of BR-AODV was evaluated and compared with that of classical AODV routing protocol and the results show that BR-AODV outperforms AODV in terms of delay, throughput and packet loss.
Keywordsunmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) AODV Boids of Reynolds mobility control
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Maza I, Caballero F, Capitán J, Martínez-De-Dios J R, Ollero A. Experimental results in multi-UAV coordination for disaster management and civil security applications. Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, 2011, 61(1/2/3/4): 563-585.Google Scholar
- 3.Han Z, Lee Swindlehurst A, Ray Liu K J. Smart deployment/movement of unmanned air vehicle to improve connectivity in MANET. In Proc. the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conf., April 2006, pp.252-257.Google Scholar
- 4.Chandrashekar K, Dekhordi M R, Baras J S. Providing full connectivity in large ad-hoc networks by dynamic placement of aerial platforms. In Proc. IEEE Military Communications Conf., November 2004, pp.1429-1436.Google Scholar
- 5.Tedim F, Xanthopoulos G, Leone V. Forest fires in Europe: Facts and challenges. In Wildfire Hazards Risks and Disasters, Paton D, Shroder J F (eds.), Elsevier, 2015, pp.77-99.Google Scholar
- 6.Perkins C E, Royer E M, Das S. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing. RFC 3561, 2003. https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-manet-aodv-02, Jan. 2018.
- 8.Johnson D, Hu Y, Maltz D. The dynamic source routing protocol (DSR) for mobile ad hoc networks for IPv4. RFC 4728, 2007. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4728, Jan. 2018.
- 9.Jacquet P, Clausen T. Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR). RFC 3626, 2003. https://www.heise.de/netze/rfc/rfcs/rfc3626.shtml, Jan. 2018.
- 10.Kuiper E, Nadjm-Tehrani S. Geographical routing in intermittently connected ad hoc networks. In Proc. the 22nd Int. Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications-Workshops, March 2008, pp.1690-1695.Google Scholar
- 12.Brown T X, Doshi S, Jadhav S, Henkel D, Thekkekunnel R G. A full scale wireless ad hoc network test bed. In Proc. the Int. Symp. Advanced Radio Technologies, January 2005, pp.50-60.Google Scholar
- 13.Khare V R, Wang F Z, Wu S N, Deng Y H, Thompson C. Ad-hoc network of unmanned aerial vehicle swarms for search & destroy tasks. In Proc. the 4th Int. IEEE Conf. Intelligent Systems, September 2008, pp.6-65-6-72.Google Scholar
- 14.Hyland M T, Mullins B E, Baldwin R O, Temple M A. Simulation-based performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc routing protocols in a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles. In Proc. the 21st Int. Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, May 2007, pp.249-256.Google Scholar
- 15.Karp B, Kung H T. Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks. In Proc. the 6th Annual ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, August 2000, pp.243-254.Google Scholar
- 16.Shirani R, St-Hilaire M, Kunz T, Zhou Y F, Li J, Lamont L. The performance of greedy geographic forwarding in unmanned aeronautical ad-hoc networks. In Proc. the 9th Annual Communication Networks and Services Research Conf., May 2011, pp.161-166.Google Scholar
- 17.Brown T X, Doshi S, Jadhav S, Himmelstein J. Test bed for a wireless network on small UAVs. In Proc. the 3rd AIAA “Unmanned Unlimited” Technical Conf., September 2004, pp.20-23.Google Scholar
- 18.Le M, Park J S, Gerla M. UAV assisted disruption tolerant routing. In Proc. MILCOM 2006-2006 IEEE Military Communications Conf., October 2006.Google Scholar
- 19.Forsmann J H, Hiromoto R E, Svoboda J. A time-slotted on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc unmanned vehicle systems. In Proc. the SPIE Unmanned Systems Technology IX, May 2007, Article No. 65611P.Google Scholar
- 20.Alshbatat A I, Dong L. Cross layer design for mobile adhoc unmanned aerial vehicle communication networks. In Proc. Int. Conf. Networking Sensing and Control, April 2010, pp.331-336.Google Scholar
- 21.Lin L, Sun Q B, Li J, Yang F. A novel geographic position mobility oriented routing strategy for UAVs. Journal of Computational Information Systems, 2012, 8(2): 709-716.Google Scholar
- 22.Gu D L, Pei G Y, Ly H, Gerla M, Hong X Y. Hierarchical routing for multi-layer ad-hoc wireless networks with UAVs. In Proc. the 21st Century Military Communications Conf., October 2000, pp.310-314.Google Scholar
- 23.Karthikeyan B, Kanimozhi N, Ganesh S H. Analysis of reactive AODV routing protocol for MANET. In Proc. the World Congress on Computing and Communication Technologies, February 27-March 1, 2014, pp.264-267.Google Scholar