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Humanes Papillomavirus und Analkarzinom

Diagnose, Screening und Therapie

Human papillomavirus and anal cancer

Diagnosis, screening and therapy

Zusammenfassung

Die Inzidenz des Analkarzinoms nimmt weltweit zu, vor allem bei männlichen homosexuellen Patienten. Als hauptsächlicher Risikofaktor für die Entstehung des Analkarzinoms gilt die anale Infektion mit dem humanen Papillomavirus (HPV). Die Prävalenz der analen HPV-Infektion bei HIV-negativen homosexuellen Männern beträgt 50–60%. Bei HIV-positiven homosexuellen Männern liegt die Prävalenz bei nahezu 100%. Die HPV-assoziierte anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie (AIN) gilt als Vorläuferläsion des Analkarzinoms. Bei etwa 20% der HIV-negativen homosexuellen Männer lässt sich eine AIN diagnostizieren, wobei bei 5–10% eine hochgradige Epitheldysplasie (AIN II–III) vorkommt. Die Prävalenz der hochgradigen AIN ist jedoch mit bis zu 50% bei HIV-positiven homosexuellen Patienten bedeutend höher. Trotz der Häufigkeit von HPV-bedingten analen Epitheldysplasien und der zunehmenden Fälle von Analkarzinomen gibt es aber noch immer keinen Konsens bezüglich des Screenings, der Therapie und der Überwachung von Patienten mit AIN. Im Falle eines Analkarzinoms ist unabhängig vom HPV- oder HIV-Status heute noch immer die Radiochemotherapie mit 5-FU und Mitomycin C Standard.

Abstract

The incidence of anal cancer is increasing worldwide, especially in male homosexual patients. The main risk factor for development of anal cancer is anal infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The prevalence of anal HPV infection in HIV-negative homosexual men is 50–60%, while in HIV-positive homosexual men the prevalence is nearly 100%. HPV-related anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the putative precursor of anal cancer. AIN can be found in approximately 20% of HIV-negative homosexual men and 5–10% of these patients have high-grade dysplasia (AIN II–III). The prevalence of high-grade dysplasia in HIV-positive homosexual men is, however, significantly higher being up to 50%. Despite the prevalence of HPV-related anal dysplasia and the increasing number of patients with anal cancer, there is still a lack of consensus regarding screening, surveillance and therapy of patients with AIN. The standard treatment for anal cancer is still radiochemotherapy with 5-FU and mitomycin C independent of the HPV or HIV status.

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Dindo, D., Riesterer, O., Weber, A. et al. Humanes Papillomavirus und Analkarzinom. Gastroenterologe 5, 318–325 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11377-010-0400-5

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie
  • Analkarzinom
  • AIN
  • HPV/HIV-Status
  • Radiochemotherapie

Keywords

  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Anal cancer
  • AIN
  • HPV/HIV status
  • Radiochemotherapy