This paper presents an approach to optimize the control torque of heavy-duty redundant manipulators used for dismantling nuclear power plants. Such manipulators must endure intensive and repetitive tasks over long periods. In this regard, the torque minimization is essential for decreasing power consumption and the fatigue load acting on the joint bearings. This in turn can increase the lifespan of the manipulators and lead to saving on maintenance costs. Because of the design specifications of the manipulators, gravity entirely dominates the Coriolis and centrifugal torques. Hence, it is challenging to reduce the driving torque through the application of a conventional optimization method, known as the minimum kinetic energy method, where the configuration of the manipulator changes extremely slowly from the beginning to the end of the trajectory. In this study, we propose a new torque minimization method based on the advantage of the redundancy of the manipulator. In particular, the norm of the static torque caused by the manipulator gravity itself tends to decrease owing to the application of the gradient projection method for the redundancy resolution at the acceleration level. Simultaneously, the dynamic torque is minimized to lessen the local acceleration triggered by the change mentioned above. The generalized effectiveness of this proposed method is evaluated through simulations and experiments with two different trajectories and speeds. The results show that the proposed method is more effective in reducing the overall driving torque and dissipated energy compared with the conventional technique, especially in the case of the 7-DOF heavy-duty redundant manipulator, and would be applicable for the revolute robot type.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Invernizzi DC, Locatelli G, Brookes NJ (2017) Managing social challenges in the nuclear decommissioning industry: a responsible approach towards better performance. Int J Project Manag 35(7):1350–1364
Shaukat A, Gao Y, Kuo JA, Bowen BA, Mort PE (2016) Visual classification of waste material for nuclear decommissioning. Robot Auton Syst 75:365–378
Monteiro DB, Moreira JM, Maiorino JR (2015) Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site
Talha M, Ghalamzan EAM, Takahashi C, Kuo J, Ingamells W and Stolkin R (2016) Towards robotic decommissioning of legacy nuclear plant: Results of human-factors experiments with tele-robotic manipulation, and a discussion of challenges and approaches for decommissioning. In: IEEE international symposium on safety, security, and rescue robotics (SSRR), pp 166–173
Song K, Jiang S, Lin M (2016) Interactive teleoperation of a mobile manipulator using a shared-control approach. IEEE Trans Human Mach Syst 46(6):834–845
Capuska S, Brecka S, Kosnac S, Martinkovic J (2005) Manipulator robotics in use for decommissioning of A-1 nuclear power plant. In: 12th International conference on advanced robotics, pp 123–128
Kang G, Oh HS, Seo JK, Kim U, Choi HR (2019) Variable admittance control of robot manipulators based on human intention. IEEE/ASME Trans Mech 24(3):1023–1032
Ott C, Mukherjee R, Nakamura Y (2015) A hybrid system framework for unified impedance and admittance control. J Intell Robot Syst 78(3–4):359–375
Winiarski T, Banachowicz K (2013) Opening a door with a redundant impedance controlled robot. In: 9th International workshop on robot motion and control, pp 221–226
Hollerbach JOHNM, Ki Suh (1987) Redundancy resolution of manipulators through torque optimization. IEEE J Robot Autom 3(4):308–316
Kazerounian Kazem, Wang Zhaoyu (1988) Global versus local optimization in redundancy resolution of robotic manipulators. Int J Robot Res 7(5):3–12
Nedungadi A, Kazerouinian K (1989) A local solution with global characteristics for the joint torque optimization of a redundant manipulator. Advanced Robotics. Springer, Berlin, pp 559–591
Ma Shugen (1994) Local torque optimization of redundant manipulators in torque-based formulation. Annual Conf IEEE Ind Electron 2:697–702
Hsu Ping, Mauser John, Sastry Shankar (1989) Dynamic control of redundant manipulators. J Robot Syst 6(2):133–148
Kang H-J, Robert Freeman A (1992) Joint torque optimization of redundant manipulators via the null space damping method. In: IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, pp 520–525
De Luca A, Oriolo G, Siciliano B (1992) Robot redundancy resolution at the acceleration level. Lab Robot Autom 4:97–97
Khatib O (1993) The operational space framework. JSME Int J Ser C Dyn Control Robot Design Manuf 36(3):277–287
Chung CY, Lee BH, Kim MS, Lee CW (2000) Torque optimizing control with singularity-robustness for kinematically redundant robots. J Intell Robot Syst 28(3):231–258
Zhang Y, Guo D, Ma S (2013) Different-level simultaneous minimization of joint-velocity and joint-torque for redundant robot manipulators. J Intell Robot Syst 72(3–4):301–323
Moore EH (1920) On the reciprocal of the general algebraic matrix. Bull Am Math Soc 26:394–395
Nakamura Y, Hanafusa H (1986) Inverse kinematic solutions with singularity robustness for robot manipulator control. ASME J Dyn Syst Measure Control 108(3):163–171
Wampler CW (1986) Manipulator inverse kinematic solutions based on vector formulations and damped least-squares methods. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 16(1):93–101
Deo Arati S, Walker Ian D (1995) Overview of damped least-squares methods for inverse kinematics of robot manipulators. J Intell Robot Syst 14(1):43–68
Yoshikawa Tsuneo (1984) Analysys and control of robot manipulators with redundancy. Robot Res First Int Syp 1984:735–747
Liegeois Alain (1977) Automatic supervisory control of the configuration and behavior of multibody mechanisms. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 7(12):868–871
Woolfrey Jon, Wenjie Lu, Liu Dikai (2019) A control method for joint torque minimization of redundant manipulators handling large external forces. J Intell Robot Syst 96(1):3–16
Hutter Marco, Sommer Hannes, Gehring Christian, Hoepflinger Mark, Bloesch Michael, Siegwart Roland (2014) Quadrupedal locomotion using hierarchical operational space control. Int J Robot Res 33(8):1047–1062
Remy DC, Buffinton K, Siegwart R (2012) Comparison of cost functions for electrically driven running robots. In: IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, pp 2343–2350
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2021R1A2C3012387).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hoang, P.T., Choi, Y.S., Rhee, I. et al. A new torque minimization method for heavy-duty redundant manipulators used in nuclear decommissioning tasks. Intel Serv Robotics (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11370-021-00369-4
- Nuclear decommissioning
- Redundant manipulator
- Redundancy resolution
- Torque minimization