## Abstract

In this paper, a method has been proposed to analyze the planar architectures of serial and parallel manipulators, based on the duality associated with their interconnected kinematics. The interconnected kinematics states that model of one architecture can be derived from the kinematic model of the other, using screw theory approach. The performance of the initial and the derived manipulators was evaluated with three criteria: isotropy, maximum force transmission ratio and local transmission index. Without loss of generality, the serial manipulator derived from parallel has better isotropy, while the parallel manipulator derived from serial can be designed to have better force and power transmission.

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## Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (or Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program-Artificial intelligence bio-robot medical convergence project) (20001257, Artificial intelligence algorithm-based vascular intervention robot system for reducing radiation exposure and achieving 0.5 mm accuracy) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE, Korea), the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW), Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT), Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT), supported by the Technology Innovation Program (10052980, Development of microrobotic system for surgical treatment of chronic total occlusion) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea, and supported by the BK21 Plus Program funded by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF).

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## Appendix

### Appendix

### 1.1 Inverse of matrix having axis coordinates

Consider three lines \( \hat{S}_{1} ,\,\,\hat{S}_{2} , \) and \( \hat{S}_{3} \) having coordinates (\( x_{1} \), \( y_{1} \)), (\( x_{2} \), \( y_{2} \)) and (\( x_{3} \), \( y_{3} \)) as shown in Fig. 23. The matrix Q can be written as

The inverse of \( Q \) can be expressed as

Adjoint matrix can be constructed as follows

Substituting (66) into (65), we get

Let \( \hat{s}_{2} , \)\( \hat{s}_{3} \) and \( \hat{s}_{1} \) are the column vectors formed by the unitized coordinates of the lines joining the points 2-3, 3-1 and 1-2, respectively, where \( u_{23} \) given by

is denoted as the distance between two points. Then,

where \( \hat{s}_{2}^{T} = \left[ {c_{2} ,s_{2} ;\,p_{2} } \right]. \)

Now, (65) can be expressed as

where

Similarly,

Finally, substituting (71) through (73) into (70), we have

where \( \hat{s}_{1}^{T} = \left[ {c_{1} ,s_{1} ;p_{1} } \right] \), \( \hat{s}_{2}^{T} = \left[ {c_{2} ,s_{2} ;p_{2} } \right] \) and \( \hat{s}_{3}^{T} = \left[ {c_{3} ,s_{3} ;p_{3} } \right]. \)

It is noted that the three rows of (74) are lines expressed in ray coordinates. Therefore, it is remarked that the initial matrix \( Q \) composed of three lines expressed by axis coordinate is converted into ray coordinate as a result of matrix inversion.

### 1.2 Inverse of matrix having ray coordinates

Assume that we have three lines \( \hat{s}_{1} ,\,\,\hat{s}_{2} \) and \( \hat{s}_{3} \) in plane as shown in Fig. 23. They can be expressed in ray coordinate. The matrix *E* having ray coordinates can be written as follows

Then, the inverse of \( E \) can be expressed in the following way

and it adjoint matrix can be constructed as follows

Using Grassmann’s expansion given in (12) through (14), the point of intersection \( (x_{1} ,y_{1} )\, \) of lines \( \hat{s}_{1} ,\,\,\hat{s}_{2} \) can be solved by

Rearranging (78) would result in

Similarly, the first and the second columns of (77) can be expressed, respectively, as

and

Putting (79) through (81) into (76), we can get

Expanding determinant with respect to the first column of (77), we have

Similarly, for the second and third columns, we have

Finally, inserting (83) through (85) into (82), we have

It is noted that the three rows of (86) are lines expressed in axis coordinates. Therefore, it is remarked that the initial matrix \( E \) composed of three lines expressed by ray coordinate is converted into lines in axis coordinate as a result of matrix inversion.

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Iqbal, H., Khan, M.U.A. & Yi, BJ. Analysis of duality-based interconnected kinematics of planar serial and parallel manipulators using screw theory.
*Intel Serv Robotics* **13**, 47–62 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11370-019-00294-7

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11370-019-00294-7