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  • Soils, Sec 2 • Global Change, Environ Risk Assess, Sustainable Land Use • Research Article
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Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii exopolysaccharide and sunflower husk biochar as factors affecting immobilization of both tetracycline and Cd2+ ions on soil solid phase

Abstract

Purpose

Industrialization and application of large amount of fertilizers together with animal wastes increased pollution of environment with antibiotics and heavy metals. Due to their negative impact on organisms and biodiversity, it is necessary to limit their mobility. Carbonaceous materials and bacterial exopolysaccharides can be a solution. Therefore, we examined the impact of sunflower husk biochar and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii exopolysaccharide (EPS) on kaolinite adsorption capacity towards tetracycline (TC) and cadmium (Cd).

Materials and methods

The experiments were performed on kaolinite—natural element of soil sorption complex, biochar—product of sunflower husks pyrolysis (650 °C), and their simple composite prepared by wet mixing. The solids were characterized by various methods—nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, potentiometric titration, and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorbed concentrations of TC and Cd on selected solids were examined as a function of pH and EPS presence. TC concentration was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, whilst that of Cd by ion selective electrodes.

Results and discussion

Among all tested solids, biochar was characterized by the highest heterogeneity and highest adsorption capacity relative to Cd and TC. It adsorbed 63.4% of Cd ions (at pH 8) and 30.4% of TC (at pH 5). The biochar addition to kaolinite improved its adsorption capacity, but maximally by 5.5%. This was dictated by poor textural parameters of the selected biochar. The pH value was not a factor strongly affecting the efficiency of biochar addition to kaolinite—the difference between pH 5 and pH 8 was only 1%. EPS enhanced accumulation of Cd and TC, but this trend was clear only for the selected adsorbents. For Cd adsorption, the highest increase was noted for B (by 13.8%), whereas for TC adsorption for K (by 7.5%). The simultaneous addition of biochar and exopolysaccharide contributed to increase in Cd adsorption on kaolinite by 7%, whilst TC adsorption by 10.5%.

Conclusions

Simultaneous application of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii exopolysaccharide and sunflower husk biochar increased adsorption capacity of kaolinite. Together with these substances, additional functional groups were introduced into the system. However, it must be emphasized that, due to low porosity and specific surface area of the selected biochar, the final improvement of kaolinite adsorptive ability was not satisfying. In the future, biochars of better textural parameters should be applied in such procedures. Their application together with EPS should reduce the bioavailability of hazardous substances more effectively.

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Funding

This research was funded in part by National Science Centre, Poland (2021/41/B/NZ9/03059).

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Katarzyna Szewczuk-Karpisz: conceptualization, writing—original draft preparation, writing—reviewing and editing, data curation, visualization, supervision, project administration; Agnieszka Tomczyk: methodology, writing—original draft preparation, writing—reviewing and editing, formal analysis, investigation, resources; Katarzyna Grygorczuk-Płaneta: investigation, writing—reviewing and editing; Sadiq Naveed: investigation, writing—original draft preparation.

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Correspondence to Katarzyna Szewczuk-Karpisz.

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Szewczuk-Karpisz, K., Tomczyk, A., Grygorczuk-Płaneta, K. et al. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii exopolysaccharide and sunflower husk biochar as factors affecting immobilization of both tetracycline and Cd2+ ions on soil solid phase. J Soils Sediments (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-022-03255-3

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Keywords

  • Combined adsorbent
  • Kaolinite-biochar composite
  • Antibiotic and heavy metal removal
  • Mixed adsorption
  • Bioavailability reduction
  • Pollutant immobilization