Nitrous oxide (N2O) measured simultaneously with di-nitrogen (N2) emissions from soils are greatly uncertain due to large temporal and spatial variations. This study aims to report N2O, N2, N2/N2O, 15N-N2O, wheat-maize annual grain yields, and yield-scaled N2O and N2O plus N2 emissions on the responses to different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates in a winter wheat-summer maize cropping system. Furthermore, this study also seeks to determine controlling factors for N2O, N2, and N2/N2O emissions and significantly investigate the relationship between the soil-climate measured factors and 15N-N2O.
Materials and method
Three N inputs and control treatments, 0, CK; 200, LN; 400, MN; and 600, HN kg N ha−1 year−1 were set since 1998. Direct measurement method has been used to quantify N2O and N2 emissions.
Our results indicated that the effects of long-term N fertilization significantly increased N2O and N2 and also reduced N2/N2O emission ratios as described by exponential functions. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), NH4+, WFPS, NO3-, and DOC were revealed to be main controlling factors for N2O, while N2 by DOC, NO3-, WFPS, and temperature finally N2/N2O was positively related to temperature. Furthermore, the 15N-N2O was positively related to N2/N2O ratios, indicating that denitrification is the dominant process at the study site. The yield-scaled N2O emissions followed the order HM>MN>LN>CK, and they were 1.56, 1.47, and 1.07 times greater than CK, respectively. Total yield-scaled N2O plus N2 were in the order of CK>HN>MN>LN.
N fertilization has shown strong impact not only on N2O, N2, and N2/N2O emissions but also on yield-scaled N2O and N2O plus N2 emissions. High agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), low yield-scaled N2O emissions, and low cumulative N2O plus N2 emissions were observed at 200-LN treatment, suggesting this rate to be an optimum and sustainable agricultural management practice with no significant crop yield reduction as compared to the current farmers’ practice of 400 kg N ha−1 year−1.
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Authors are thankful to editor and reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. We would also like to thank Mr Junqi Yang for his tireless assistance in the fieldwork.
This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41530859) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0800100, 2018YFC0213301) and (2016YFD0800102-4, 2018YFC0213300).
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Bizimana, F., Timilsina, A., Dong, W. et al. Effects of long-term nitrogen fertilization on N2O, N2 and their yield-scaled emissions in a temperate semi-arid agro-ecosystem. J Soils Sediments 21, 1659–1671 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-021-02903-4
- Nitrogen fertilization
- N2O and N2 emissions
- Controlling factors
- Wheat-maize grain yields
- 15N in soil-emitted N2O
- Yield-scaled N2O and N2O + N2 emissions