Influence of soil water content and soil amendments on trace metal release and seedling growth in serpentine soil

Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effects of organic amendments and soil water status on trace metal release from serpentine soil.

Materials and methods

Two organic amendments, dendro-biochar (BC) and municipal solid waste compost (CM), were added to serpentine soil at four different ratios, specifically 2.5:0.0, 2.5:1.0, 2.5:2.5, and 2.5:5.0% (w/w). Along with the control (with no organic amendments), each soil treatment was incubated separately under saturated point (SP) and field capacity (FC) water content for 10 days. Subsamples were obtained from each treatment to analyze the bioavailable trace metal concentration and related edaphic parameters, namely total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate (NO3), phosphate (PO43−), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Then, the soil solution was eluded from each treatment and incubated for 10 days under permanent wilting point (PW). Furthermore, a seed germination test was performed under the different treatments.

Results and discussion

Significant reductions (p < 0.05) in bioavailable concentration of all four trace metals were observed in all the amendment ratios under all water status treatments (SP, FC, SP-PW, and FC-PW), compared with the control. Furthermore, FC-PW with the highest amendment ratio (2.5% BC:5.0% CM) reduced Ni by 67.6%; FC-PW with 2.5% BC + 2.5% CM immobilized Mn and Co by 92.1 and 96.9%, respectively, and SP water status with all four amendment ratios immobilized 100% of bioavailable Cr. Maximum amendment ratio under all four water status enhanced %TOC and significantly increased PO43− concentration in SP-PW. However, FC showed comparatively high NO3 concentration than other treatments. Germination index (GI) for mung beans and tomato did not show a significant difference in response to amendment ratios or soil water status; however, SP treatment expressed significantly high seedling vigor (SVI) for mung beans.

Conclusions

Treatments of BC and CM effectively immobilize the bioavailable fraction of trace metals in serpentine soils. Increasing amendment ratio increases the %TOC regardless of the soil water status, whereas SP-PW is favorable for the availability of PO43−, and FC is favorable for availability of NO3. The GI for mung beans and tomato seed was not influenced by the soil water status nor by the amendment ratios. However, the SVI of mung bean seedlings was controlled by the soil water status.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Agegnehu G, Bass AM, Nelson PN, Muirhead B, Wright G, Bird MI (2015) Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments: effects on peanut yield, soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 213:72–85

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Alexander EB, Coleman RG, Harrison SP, Keeler-Wolfe T (2007) Serpentine geoecology of western North America: geology, soils, and vegetation. OUP, USA

    Google Scholar 

  3. Almaroai YA, Usman AR, Ahmad M, Moon DH, Cho J-S, Joo YK, Jeon C, Lee SS, Ok YS (2014) Effects of biochar, cow bone, and eggshell on Pb availability to maize in contaminated soil irrigated with saline water. Environ Earth Sci 71(3):1289–1296

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Anderson JM, Ingram J (1993) Tropical soil biology and fertility, 2nd edt. A handbook of methods. CAB international, Wallingford

  5. Angle JS, Baker AJ, Whiting SN, Chaney RL (2003) Soil moisture effects on uptake of metals by Thlaspi, Alyssum, and Berkheya. Plant Soil 256(2):325–332

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Antibachi D, Kelepertzis E, Kelepertsis A (2012) Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the Mouriki-Thiva area (Central Greece) and environmental impact implications. Soil Sediment Contam 21(4):434–450

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Avudainayagam S, Megharaj M, Owens G, Kookana RS, Chittleborough D, Naidu R (2003) Chemistry of chromium in soils with emphasis on tannery waste sites: a review. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 178: 53-91

  8. Aziz RA, Rahim SA, Sahid I, Idris WMR (2015) Speciation and availability of heavy metals on serpentinized paddy soil and paddy tissue. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 195:1658–1665

    Google Scholar 

  9. Baugé S, Lavkulich L, Schreier H (2013) Phosphorus and trace metals in serpentine-affected soils of the Sumas Basin, British Columbia. Can J Soil Sci 93(3):359–367

    Google Scholar 

  10. Baumeister JL, Hausrath EM, Olsen AA, Tschauner O, Adcock CT, Metcalf RV (2015) Biogeochemical weathering of serpentinites: an examination of incipient dissolution affecting serpentine soil formation. Appl Geochem 54:74–84

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Beesley L, Moreno-Jiménez E, Gomez-Eyles JL (2010) Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environ Pollut 158(6):2282–2287

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Beesley L, Inneh OS, Norton GJ, Moreno-Jimenez E, Pardo T, Clemente R, Dawson JJ (2014) Assessing the influence of compost and biochar amendments on the mobility and toxicity of metals and arsenic in a naturally contaminated mine soil. Environ Pollut 186:195–202

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Bernal M, Clemente R, Walker D (2007) The role of organic amendments in the bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted soils. In: Gore RW (ed) Environmental research at the leading edge. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, New York

    Google Scholar 

  14. Brooks RR (1987) Serpentine and its vegetation: a multidisciplinary approach. Dioscorides Press, Portland

    Google Scholar 

  15. Cerdeira-Pérez A, Monterroso C, Rodríguez-Garrido B, Machinet G, Echevarria G, Prieto-Fernández Á, Kidd PS (2019) Implementing nickel phytomining in a serpentine quarry in NW Spain. J Geochem Explor 197:1–13

    Google Scholar 

  16. Cheng C-H, Jien S-H, Iizuka Y, Tsai H, Chang Y-H, Hseu Z-Y (2011) Pedogenic chromium and nickel partitioning in serpentine soils along a toposequence. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75(2):659–668

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Clemente R, Escolar Á, Bernal MP (2006) Heavy metals fractionation and organic matter mineralisation in contaminated calcareous soil amended with organic materials. Bioresour Technol 97(15):1894–1901

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Du Laing G, Vanthuyne D, Vandecasteele B, Tack F, Verloo M (2007) Influence of hydrological regime on pore water metal concentrations in a contaminated sediment-derived soil. Environ Pollut 147(3):615–625

    Google Scholar 

  19. Evans CE, Etherington JR (1990) The effect of soil water potential on seed germination of some British plants. New Phytol 115(3):539–548

    Google Scholar 

  20. Fengxiang H, Banin A (1997) Long-term transformations and redistribution of potentially toxic heavy metals in arid-zone soils incubated: I. Under saturated conditions. Water Air Soil Pollut 95(1–4):399–423

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Fernandez S, Seoane S, Merino A (1999) Plant heavy metal concentrations and soil biological properties in agricultural serpentine soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 30(13–14):1867–1884

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Galey M, Van Der Ent A, Iqbal M, Rajakaruna N (2017) Ultramafic geoecology of south and Southeast Asia. Bot Stud 58(1):18

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Gambrell R (1994) Trace and toxic metals in wetlands—a review. J Environ Qual 23(5):883–891

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Gray CW, Mclaren RG (2006) Soil factors affecting heavy metal solubility in some New Zealand soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 175(1–4):3–14

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Gunarathne V, Mayakaduwa S, Vithanage M (2017) Biochar’s influence as a soil amendment for essential plant nutrient uptake. In Essential Plant Nutrients, pp. 47-67. Springer, Cham

    Google Scholar 

  26. Han F, Banin A (1997) Long-term transformations and redistribution of potentially toxic heavy metals in arid-zone soils incubated: I. Under saturated conditions. Water Air Soil Pollut 95(1):399–423

    Google Scholar 

  27. Han F, Banin A (2000) Long-term transformations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, Mn and Fe in the native arid-zone soils under saturated condition. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31:943–957

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Han F, Banin A, Triplett G (2001) Redistribution of heavy metals in arid-zone soils under a wetting-drying cycle soil moisture regime. Soil Sci 166(1):18–28

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Han F, Banin A, Kingery W, Triplett G, Zhou L, Zheng S, Ding W (2003) New approach to studies of heavy metal redistribution in soil. Adv Environ Res 8(1):113–120

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Harrison SP, Kruckeberg AR (2008) Garden on the rocks. Nat Hist 117(4):40–44

    Google Scholar 

  31. Harrison S, Rajakaruna N (2011) Serpentine: the evolution and ecology of a model system. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA

  32. Herath I, Kumarathilaka P, Navaratne A, Rajakaruna N, Vithanage M (2015) Immobilization and phytotoxicity reduction of heavy metals in serpentine soil using biochar. J Soils Sediments 15(1):126–138

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Huang B, Li Z, Huang J, Guo L, Nie X, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Zeng G (2014) Adsorption characteristics of Cu and Zn onto various size fractions of aggregates from red paddy soil. J Hazard Mater 264:176–183

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Inyang MI, Gao B, Yao Y, Xue Y, Zimmerman A, Mosa A, Pullammanappallil P, Ok YS, Cao X (2016) A review of biochar as a low-cost adsorbent for aqueous heavy metal removal. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 46(4):406–433

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Kabala C, Singh BR (2001) Fractionation and mobility of copper, lead, and zinc in soil profiles in the vicinity of a copper smelter. J Environ Qual 30(2):485–492

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Kalbitz K, Wennrich R (1998) Mobilization of heavy metals and arsenic in polluted wetland soils and its dependence on dissolved organic matter. Sci Total Environ 209(1):27–39

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Kanellopoulos C, Argyraki A, Mitropoulos P (2015) Geochemistry of serpentine agricultural soil and associated groundwater chemistry and vegetation in the area of Atalanti, Greece. J Geochem Explor 158:22–33

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Karami N, Clemente R, Moreno-Jiménez E, Lepp NW, Beesley L (2011) Efficiency of green waste compost and biochar soil amendments for reducing lead and copper mobility and uptake to ryegrass. J Hazard Mater 191(1–3):41–48

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Kargar M, Clark OG, Hendershot WH, Jutras P, Prasher SO (2015) Immobilization of trace metals in contaminated urban soil amended with compost and biochar. Water Air Soil Pollut 226(6):191

    Google Scholar 

  40. Kashem M, Singh B (2004) Transformations in solid phase species of metals as affected by flooding and organic matter. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 35(9–10):1435–1456

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Kierczak J, Neel C, Aleksander-Kwaterczak U, Helios-Rybicka E, Bril H, Puziewicz J (2008) Solid speciation and mobility of potentially toxic elements from natural and contaminated soils: a combined approach. Chemosphere 73(5):776–784

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Kruckeberg AR (2002) Geology and plant life: the effects of landforms and rock types on plants. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA

  43. Kumar A, Maiti SK (2013) Availability of chromium, nickel and other associated heavy metals of ultramafic and serpentine soil/rock and in plants. Int J Adv Res Technol 3(2):256–268

    Google Scholar 

  44. Kumarathilaka P, Vithanage M (2017) Influence of Gliricidia sepium biochar on attenuate perchlorate-induced heavy metal release in serpentine soil. J Chem 2017: 1-8

    Google Scholar 

  45. Kumarathilaka P, Oze C, Vithanage M (2016) Perchlorate mobilization of metals in serpentine soils. Appl Geochem 74:203–209

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Larney FJ, Angers DA (2012) The role of organic amendments in soil reclamation: a review. Can J Soil Sci 92(1):19–38

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Lázaro JD, Kidd P, Martinez CM (2006) A phytogeochemical study of the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal): possible species for plant-based soil remediation technologies. Sci Total Environ 354(2–3):265–277

    Google Scholar 

  48. Liang J, Yang Z, Tang L, Zeng G, Yu M, Li X, Wu H, Qian Y, Li X, Luo Y (2017) Changes in heavy metal mobility and availability from contaminated wetland soil remediated with combined biochar-compost. Chemosphere 181:281–288

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Lindsay WL, Norvell WA (1978) Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42(3):421–428

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Mackie K, Marhan S, Ditterich F, Schmidt H, Kandeler E (2015) The effects of biochar and compost amendments on copper immobilization and soil microorganisms in a temperate vineyard. Agric Ecosyst Environ 201:58–69

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Malhi S, Mcgill W, Nyborg M (1990) Nitrate losses in soils: effect of temperature, moisture and substrate concentration. Soil Biol Biochem 22(6):733–737

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Manios T, Stentiford E, Millner P (2003) Removal of heavy metals from a metaliferous water solution by Typha latifolia plants and sewage sludge compost. Chemosphere 53(5):487–494

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Neilson S, Rajakaruna N (2015) Phytoremediation of agricultural soils: using plants to clean metal-contaminated arable land. In: Phytoremediation: Management of Environmental Contaminants, pp. 159-168, Eds. A. A. Ansari, S. S. Gill, G. R. Lanza, and L. Newman. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  54. Nkrumah PN, Tisserand R, Chaney RL, Baker AJ, Morel JL, Goudon R, Erskine PD, Echevarria G, Van Der Ent A (2019) The first tropical ‘metal farm’: some perspectives from field and pot experiments. J Geochem Explor 198:114–122

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. O’dell R, Silk W, Green P, Claassen V (2007) Compost amendment of Cu–Zn minespoil reduces toxic bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and promotes establishment and biomass production of Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.). Environ Pollut 148(1):115–124

    Google Scholar 

  56. Peijnenburg WJ, Zablotskaja M, Vijver MG (2007) Monitoring metals in terrestrial environments within a bioavailability framework and a focus on soil extraction. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 67(2):163–179

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Proctor J, Woodell SR (1975) The ecology of serpentine soils. Adv Ecol Res 9: 255-366

  58. Qian T, Yang Q, Jun DCF, Dong F, Zhou Y (2019) Transformation of phosphorus in sewage sludge biochar mediated by a phosphate-solubilizing microorganism. Chem Eng J 359:1573–1580

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Rajakaruna N, Baker AJ (2004) Serpentine: a model habitat for botanical research in Sri Lanka. Ceylon J Sci 32:1–19

    Google Scholar 

  60. Rajakaruna N, Bohm BA (2002) Serpentine and its vegetation: a preliminary study from Sri Lanka. J Appl Bot 76(1/2):20–28

    Google Scholar 

  61. Rajakaruna N, Boyd RS (2014) Serpentine soils. In: Gibson D (ed) Oxford bibliographies in ecology. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  62. Rajapaksha AU, Vithanage M, Oze C, Bandara W, Weerasooriya R (2012) Nickel and manganese release in serpentine soil from the Ussangoda Ultramafic Complex, Sri Lanka. Geoderma 189:1–9

    Google Scholar 

  63. Rizwan M, Ali S, Abbas F, Adrees M, Zia-Ur-Rehman M, Farid M, Gill RA, Ali B (2017) Role of organic and inorganic amendments in alleviating heavy metal stress in oil seed crops. In: Oil seed crops: yield and adaptations under environmental stress, pp 224-235, Eds. P. Ahmad. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  64. RodríGuez H, Fraga R (1999) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnol Adv 17(4–5):319–339

    Google Scholar 

  65. Schedlbauer JL (2015) Serpentine ecosystem responses to varying water availability and prescribed fire in the US Mid-Atlantic region. Ecosphere 6(7):1–14

    Google Scholar 

  66. Schulz H, Dunst G, Glaser B (2013) Positive effects of composted biochar on plant growth and soil fertility. Agron Sustain Dev 33(4):817–827

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Seneviratne M, Seneviratne G, Madawala H, Iqbal M, Rajakaruna N, Bandara T, Vithanage M (2015) A preliminary study of the role of bacterial–fungal co-inoculation on heavy metal phytotoxicity in serpentine soil. Aust J Bot 63(4):261–268

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Siddiqui MH, Al-Whaibi MH (2014) Role of nano-SiO2 in germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum seeds Mill.). Saudi J Biol Sci 21(1):13–17

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Tang W-W, Zeng G-M, Gong J-L, Liu Y, Wang X-Y, Liu Y-Y, Liu Z-F, Chen L, Zhang X-R, Tu D-Z (2012) Simultaneous adsorption of atrazine and Cu (II) from wastewater by magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube. Chem Eng J 211:470–478

    Google Scholar 

  70. Tashakor M, Yaacob WZW, Mohamad H (2011) Speciation and availability of Cr, Ni and Co in serpentine soils of Ranau, Sabah. Am J Geo Sci 2(1):4–9

    Google Scholar 

  71. Tashakor M, Hochwimmer B, Brearley FQ (2017) Geochemical assessment of metal transfer from rock and soil to water in serpentine areas of Sabah (Malaysia). Environ Earth Sci 76(7):281

    Google Scholar 

  72. Van Den Berg G, Loch J (2000) Decalcification of soils subject to periodic waterlogging. Eur J Soil Sci 51(1):27–33

    Google Scholar 

  73. Van Gestel CA (2008) Physico-chemical and biological parameters determine metal bioavailability in soils. Sci Total Environ 406(3):385–395

    Google Scholar 

  74. Vashisth A, Nagarajan S (2010) Effect on germination and early growth characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds exposed to static magnetic field. J Plant Physiol 167(2):149–156

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Vithanage M, Rajapaksha AU, Oze C, Rajakaruna N, Dissanayake C (2014) Metal release from serpentine soils in Sri Lanka. Environ Monit Assess 186(6):3415–3429

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Wei W, Ma R, Sun Z, Zhou A, Bu J, Long X, Liu Y (2018) Effects of mining activities on the release of heavy metals (HMs) in a typical mountain headwater region, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15(9):1987

    Google Scholar 

  77. Wu H, Zeng G, Liang J, Chen J, Xu J, Dai J, Li X, Chen M, Xu P, Zhou Y (2016) Responses of bacterial community and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling to biochar, compost and combined amendments in soil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100(19):8583–8591

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Wu H, Lai C, Zeng G, Liang J, Chen J, Xu J, Dai J, Li X, Liu J, Chen M (2017) The interactions of composting and biochar and their implications for soil amendment and pollution remediation: a review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 37(6):754–764

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Xu X, Cao X, Zhao L, Zhou H, Luo Q (2014) Interaction of organic and inorganic fractions of biochar with Pb (II) ion: further elucidation of mechanisms for Pb (II) removal by biochar. RSC Adv 4(85):44930–44937

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Ye-Tao T, Teng-Hao-Bo D, Qi-Hang W, Shi-Zhong W, Rong-Liang Q, Ze-Bin W, Xiao-Fang G, Qi-Tang W, Mei L, Tong-Bin C (2012) Designing cropping systems for metal-contaminated sites: a review. Pedosphere 22(4):470–488

    Google Scholar 

  81. Zeng F, Ali S, Zhang H, Ouyang Y, Qiu B, Wu F, Zhang G (2011) The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants. Environ Pollut 159(1):84–91

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Zeng G, Wu H, Liang J, Guo S, Huang L, Xu P, Liu Y, Yuan Y, He X, He Y (2015) Efficiency of biochar and compost (or composting) combined amendments for reducing Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb bioavailability, mobility and ecological risk in wetland soil. RSC Adv 5(44):34541–34548

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Zhang X, Wang H, He L, Lu K, Sarmah A, Li J, Bolan NS, Pei J, Huang H (2013) Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 20(12):8472–8483

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Zheng S, Zhang M (2011) Effect of moisture regime on the redistribution of heavy metals in paddy soil. J Environ Sci 23(3):434–443

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Meththika Vithanage.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Kitae Baek

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOC 36 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gunarathne, V., Rajakaruna, N., Gunarathne, U. et al. Influence of soil water content and soil amendments on trace metal release and seedling growth in serpentine soil. J Soils Sediments 19, 3908–3921 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-019-02349-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Biochar
  • Compost
  • Serpentine
  • Plant nutrients
  • Remediation
  • Soil water content
  • Trace metals