Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 2543–2557 | Cite as

Soil bacterial community structure and extracellular enzyme activities under different land use types in a long-term reclaimed wetland

  • Lingling Huang
  • Wanjin Hu
  • Jin Tao
  • Yizhen Liu
  • Zhaoyu Kong
  • Lan WuEmail author
Soils, Sec 5 • Soil and Landscape Ecology • Research Article



This study was conducted to investigate shifts in the bacterial community structure and soil enzyme activities during long-term reclamation of different land use types in a freshwater wetland.

Materials and methods

Illumina 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing and soil extracellular enzymes were used to evaluate changes in bacterial community structure and potential function under four different land use types after 38 years of reclamation: abandoned wetland (AW), vegetable field (VF), pond sediment (PS), rice field (RF) and natural wetland (NW).

Results and discussion

Although bacterial rRNA gene alpha diversity remained unchanged, the bacterial community composition changed significantly under different land uses according to hydrological conditions. Under drying-wetting cycle conditions, RF harbored a similar bacterial community composition as NW, with Acidobacteriales, Holophagae, Planctomycetes, and Spirochaetae being dominant in both. Additionally, AW and VF as upland soil had significantly higher abundance of Gemmatimonadates and Actinobacteria. The composition of permanently flooded soil (PS) had unique features and significantly enriched levels of Chlorobi. The shifts in bacterial community structure were mainly driven by soil moisture content, as well as total organic C and N. However, variations in potential enzyme activities were better explained by soil properties than microbial community composition, suggesting high plasticity of the resident microbial community to environmental conditions.


Rice field harbored a similar bacterial community structure as natural wetland, while the responses of enzyme activities for all land use types differed significantly. The distributions of bacterial community might be influenced by hydrology, while extracellular enzyme activities were closely related to soil properties. Our results suggest that the function of the active microbial community should also be considered in environmental risk models as indicators of ecosystem conversion caused by land use and anthropogenic activity.


Bacterial community Extracellular enzyme Land use Reclamation Wetland 



We thank Jeremy Kamen, MSc, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (, for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.

Funding information

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant No. 31660149, 31360127 and 30860062) and Nanchang University Seed Grant 358 for Biomedicine (9202-0210210807).

Supplementary material

11368_2019_2262_Fig7_ESM.png (30 kb)
Fig. S1

The rarefaction curves for natural wetland and four long-term reclaimed lands. Note: AW: abandoned wetland; VF: vegetable field; PS: pond sediment; RF: rice paddy field; NW: natural wetland (PNG 29 kb)

11368_2019_2262_MOESM1_ESM.tif (37 kb)
High Resolution Image (TIF 36 kb)
11368_2019_2262_Fig8_ESM.png (25 kb)
Fig. S2

A 100% stacked column chart of relative abundances of the dominant bacterial phyla derived from 16S rRNA genes at five sampling sites. The relative abundance of the targeted sequences to the total high-quality bacterial sequences (abundance > 1%) from natural wetland and four long-term reclaimed lands. Note: AW: abandoned wetland; VF: vegetable field; PS: pond sediment; RF: rice paddy field; NW: natural wetland (PNG 25 kb)

11368_2019_2262_MOESM2_ESM.tif (2.3 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIF 2332 kb)
11368_2019_2262_Fig9_ESM.png (37 kb)
Fig. S3

The PCA analysis of soil extracellular enzyme from natural wetland and four long-term reclaimed lands. Note: AW: abandoned wetland; VF: vegetable field; PS: pond sediment; RF: rice paddy field; NW: natural wetland. Phox: phenol oxidase; Pero: peroxidase; Bglu: β-D-glucosidase; Bxyl: β-D-xylanase; NAG: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase; Phos: phosphatase (PNG 36 kb)

11368_2019_2262_MOESM3_ESM.tif (92 kb)
High Resolution Image (TIF 92 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lingling Huang
    • 1
  • Wanjin Hu
    • 1
  • Jin Tao
    • 1
  • Yizhen Liu
    • 1
  • Zhaoyu Kong
    • 1
  • Lan Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Ministry of EducationNanchang UniversityNanchangChina

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