Advertisement

Impacts of salinity level and flood irrigation on Cd mobility through a Cd-contaminated soil, Thailand: experimental and modeling techniques

  • Athiya Waleeittikul
  • Srilert ChotpantaratEmail author
  • Say Kee Ong
Soils, Sec 3 • Remediation and Management of Contaminated or Degraded Lands • Research Article
  • 55 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of salinity levels and pore water velocity (PV) on the sorption, fate, and transport of Cd through contaminated soil in low-lying areas along Mae Tao Creek, Tak Province, Thailand.

Materials and methods

Soil samples collected from a depth of 15 cm from the rice field were air-dried, ground, and sieved through a 2-mm sieve prior to the experiments. Batch sorption/desorption experiments were conducted under three salinity levels, 1, 10, and 100 mM, using CaCl2 as salt. The six columns for the Cd transport experiments were performed with low and high pore water velocities (2 and 9 cm/h) and salinity levels of 1, 10, and 100 mM. Effects on Cd rate-limited sorption and transport behavior were evaluated using the sorption isotherms, PHREEQC geochemical modeling, and mathematical model, HYDRUS-1D.

Results and discussion

For the batch experiments, the Freundlich isotherm was found to be the best sorption isotherm to explain the Cd sorption (R2 > 0.93, p value < 0.05). The Langmuir two-site model (TSM) well explained the breakthrough curves of the column experiments with Langmuir sorption coefficient (KL) ranging from 0.09 to 4.03 l/g. Salinity levels appeared to significantly increase the equilibrium fraction site (f) and first-order rate constant (α) on Cd sorption and transport over the salinity levels of 10–100 mM due to the competitive effect and the dominant species of Cd.

Conclusions

Solute transport parameters in the TSM can be used as an efficient decision support tool to predict Cd movement through contaminated sandy loam soils under a flood irrigation area.

Keywords

Cd transport Contaminated soil HYDRUS-1D Pore water velocity Salinity levels 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thankfully acknowledge the support of the International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University for their invaluable support in terms of facilities and scientific equipment. We are grateful for the thorough checking done by Prof. Zhihong Xu, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Soils and Sediments, and for the reviews of anonymous reviewers. Their valuable comments significantly improved the earlier draft of this article.

Funding information

This research was funded by the 90th Year Chulalongkorn University Scholarship. We acknowledge some financial supports from the Grant for International Research Integration: Chula Research Scholar, Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund (GCURS-59-06-79-01), the Office of Higher Education Commission (OHEC), and the S&T Postgraduate Education and Research Development Office (PERDO). We also thank the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund, Chulalongkorn University for funding the Research Unit.

Supplementary material

11368_2018_2207_MOESM1_ESM.docx (72 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 71 kb)
11368_2018_2207_MOESM2_ESM.docx (25 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 24 kb)

References

  1. Akkajit P, Tongcumpou C (2010) Fractionation of metals in cadmium contaminated soil: relation and effect on bioavailable cadmium. Geoderma 156:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akker JVD, Simmons CT, Hutson JL (2011) Salinity effects from evaporation and transpiration under flood irrigation. J Irrig Drain Eng 137:754–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appelo CAJ, Postma D (2004) Geochemistry groundwater and pollution, 2nd edn. A.A. Balkema, Great BritainGoogle Scholar
  4. Aquion (2014) Ionic strength. Activity & ionic strength. Aqion web. http://www.aqion.de/site/69. Accessed 15 Feb 2016
  5. Barrow NJ, Ellis AS (1986) Testing a mechanistic model. V. The points of zero salt effect for zinc retention and for acid/ alkali titration of a soil. J Soil Sci 37:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boonsrang A, Chotpantarat S, Sutthirat C (2018) Factors controlling the release of metals and a metalloid from the tailings of a gold mine in Thailand. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 18:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brusseau ML, Larsen T, Christensen TH (1991) Rate-limited sorption and non-equilibrium transport of organic chemicals in low organic carbon aquifer materials. Water Res 28:2485–2497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butterman WC, Plachy J (2004) Mineral commodity profiles: cadmium. Open-File Report No. 02-238 USGS Numbered Series, 25 pGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaney RL, Ryan JA, Li YM, Welch RM, Reeves PG, Brown SL, Green CE (1996) Phyto-availability and bio-avalibility in risk assessment for cadmium in agricultural environments. In: Sources of cadmium in the environment. OECD, Paris, pp 49–78Google Scholar
  10. Chotpantarat S, Chunhacherdchai L, Tongcumpou C (2015) Effects of humic acid amendment on the mobility of heavy metals (Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in gold mine tailings in Thailand. Arab J Geosci 8:7589–7600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chotpantarat S, Kiatvarangkul N (2018) Facilitated transport of cadmium with montmorillonite KSF colloids under different pH conditions in water-saturated sand column: experiment and transport modeling. Water Res 146:216–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chotpantarat S, Limpakanwech C, Siriwong W, Siripattanakul S, Sutthirat C (2011) Effects of soil water characteristic curves on simulation of nitrate vertical transport in a Thai agricultural soil. Sustain Environ Res 21:187–193Google Scholar
  13. Chotpantarat S, Ong SK, Sutthirat C, Osathaphan K (2012) Competitive modeling of sorption and transport of Pb2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ under binary and multi-metal systems in lateritic soil columns. Geoderma 189–190:278–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chotpantarat S, Wongsasuluk P, Siriwong W, Borjan M, Robson M (2014) Non-carcinogenic risk map of heavy metals contaminated in shallow groundwater for adult and aging population at agricultural area in northeastern, Thailand. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 20:689–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DEMEAU (2015) Guidelining protocol for soil-column experiments assessing fate and transport of trace organics. Deliverable 12.3. EU Grant Agreement no. 308339. 54 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) (2002) Document of the technique for geology and rice investigation, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai)Google Scholar
  17. Department of Primary Industries and Mines (DPIM) (2009) Report of water quality and stream sediment monitoring at Doi Padaeng zinc mining in Mae Sot district, Tak province. Office of Primary Industries and Mines Khet 3 (Northern part), Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai)Google Scholar
  18. Elgallal M, Fletcher L, Evans B (2016) Assessment of potential risks associated with chemicals in wastewater used for irrigation in arid and semiarid zones: a review. Agric Water Manag 177:419–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. EPA (2013) Ionic strength. EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Web. https://www.epa.gov/caddis-vol2/ionic-strength. Accessed 15 Feb 2016
  20. Fashi FH (2015) A review of solute transport modelling in soils and hydrodynamic dispersivity. Agric Sci Pract 95:134–142Google Scholar
  21. Filliplč M (2012) Mechanism of cadmium induced genomic instability. Mutat Res 733:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gee GW, Or D (2002) Particle size anaysis. In: Dane JH, Topp GC (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 4. Physical methods. SSSA, Madison, pp 255–293Google Scholar
  23. Gikas GD, Yiannakopoulou T, Tsihrintzis VA (2006) Modeling of non-point source pollution in a Mediterranean drainage basin. Environ Model Assess 11:219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hirsch D, Nir S, Banin A (1989) Prediction of cadmium complexation in solution and adsorption to montmorillonite. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53:716–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ho YS, Ofomaja AE (2006) Pseudo-second-order model for lead ion sorption from aqueous solutions onto palm kernel fiber. J Hazard Mater B129:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacques D, Simunek J, Millants D, Genuchten MTHV (2008) Modeling coupled water flow, solute transport and geochemical reactions affecting heavy metal migration in a podzol soil. Geoderma 145:449–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jalali M, Latifi Z (2018) Measuring and simulating effect of organic residues on the transport of cadmium, nickel, and zinc in a calcareous soil. J Geochem Explor 184:372–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kookana RS, Naidu R (1998) Effects of soil solution composition on cadmium transport through variable charge soils. Geoderma 84:235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kosolsaksakul P, Farmer JG, Oliver IW, Graham MC (2014) Geochemical associations and availability of cadmium (Cd) in a paddy field system, northwestern Thailand. Environ Pollut 187:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Land Development Department (LDD) (2002) Land use of Thailand in 2002, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai)Google Scholar
  31. Land Development Department (LDD) (2010a) Procedure manual of soil chemical analysis process, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai)Google Scholar
  32. Land Development Department (LDD) (2010b) Procedure manual of soil physical analysis process, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai)Google Scholar
  33. Land Development Department (LDD) (2015) Soil survey report of Tak province. Ministry of Agricultural and Cooperatives, Bangkok, p 80 (in Thai)Google Scholar
  34. Langmuir I (1916) The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part I. Solids. J Am Chem Soc 38:2221–2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lertlakawong P (ed) (2005) Summary report: participatory rural appraisal on Mae Tao sub watershed program. Local Development Institute, Bangkok, pp 1–50 (in Thai)Google Scholar
  36. Liang Y, Tian L, Lu Y, Peng L, Wang P, Jingyi L, Cheng T, Dang Z, Shi Z (2018) Kinetic of Cd(II) adsorption and desorption on ferrihydrite: experiments and modeling. Environ Sci Process Impacts 20:934–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Loganathan P, Vigneswaran S, Kandasamy J, Naidu R (2012) Cadmium sorption and desorption in soils: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 42:489–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mallmann FJK, Rheinheimer DS, Ceretta CA, Cella C, Simunek J, Oort FV (2012) Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil. J Hazard Mater 243:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mallmann FJK, Rheinheimer DS, Ceretta CA, Cella C, Minella JPG, Guma RL, Filipovic V, Oort FV, Simunek J (2014) Soil tillage to reduce surface metal contamination—model development and simulations of zinc and copper concentration profile in a pig slurry-amended soil. Agric Ecosyst Environ 196:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Masipan T, Chotpantarat S, Boonkaewwan S (2016) Experimental and modelling investigations of tracer transport in variably saturated agricultural soil of Thailand: column study. Sustain Environ Res 26:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Naidu R, Bolan NS, Kookana RS, Tiller KG (1994) Ionic-strength and pH effects on the sorption of cadmium and the surface charge of soils. Eur J Soil Sci 45:419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Niu Z, Xue Q, Qi S, Guo Y, Chen H (2018) Effect of multifactors interaction on competitive adsorption of Zn2+ and Cd2+ by response surface methodology. Environ Earth Sci 77:244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Noonan CW, Sararua SW, Campagna D, Kathman SJ, Lybarger JA, Muellet PW (2002) Effects of exposure to low levels of environmental cadmium on renal biomarkers. Environ Health Perspect 110:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pang L, Close M, Schneider D, Stanton G (2002) Effect of pore-water velocity on chemical nonequilibrium transport of Cd, Zn, and Pb in alluvial gravel columns. J Contam Hydrol 57:241–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pollution Control Department (2004) Cadmium contamination in Mae Tao creek, Mae Sot district, Tak province. Bangkok (in Thai)Google Scholar
  46. Pollution Control Department (2010) Document of the observation project on distribution and source of cadmium contamination in Mae Tao basin, Mae Sot district, Tak province. Bangkok (in Thai)Google Scholar
  47. Pollution Control Department (2011) Survey and assessment of cadmium distribution and sources of contamination in Mae Sod district, Tak province. Bangkok (in Thai)Google Scholar
  48. Prasad MNV, Nakbanpote W, Sebastian A, Panitlertumpai N, Phadermrod C (2015) Phytomanagement of Padaeng zinc mine waste, Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand. In: Hakeem K, Sabir M, Ozturk M, Murmet A (eds) Soil remediation and plants: prospects and challenges, 1st edn. Elsevier, New York, pp 661–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Raij BV, Peech M (1972) Electrochemical properties of some Oxisols and Alfisols of the tropics. Soil Sci Soc Am J 36:587–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rheinheimer DS, Cambier P, Mallmann FJK, Labanowski J, Lamy I, Tessier D, Oort FV (2013) Prospective modeling with HYDRUS-2D of 50 years Zn and Pb movement in metal contaminated agricultural soils. J Contam Hydrol 145:54–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Roberts TL (2014) Cadmium and phosphorous fertilizers: the issues and the science. Procedia Eng 83:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Serrano S, Garrido F, Campbell CG, García-González MT (2005) Competitive sorption of cadmium and lead in acid soils of central Spain. Geoderma 124:91–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Simmons RW, Pongsakul P, Saiyasitpanich D, Klinphoklap S (2005) Elevated levels of cadmium and zinc in paddy soils and elevated levels of cadmium in rice grain downstream of a zinc mineralized area in Thailand: implications for public health. Environ Geochem Health 27:501–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Simmons RW, Noble AD, Pongsakul P, Sukreeyapogse O, Chinabut N (2008) Analysis of field-moist Cd contaminated paddy soils during rice grain fill allows reliable prediction of grain Cd levels. Plant Soil 302:125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Soil Survey Staff (1999) Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys, 2nd edn. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agricultural Handbook, Washington, p 436Google Scholar
  56. Somprasong K, Chaiwiwatworakul P (2015) Estimation of potential cadmium contamination using an integrated RUSLE, GIS, and remote sensing technique in a remote watershed area: a case study of the Mae Tao Basin, Thailand. Environ Earth Sci 73:4805–4818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sun Y, Wu Q-T, Lee CC, Baoqin L, Long X (2014) Cadmium sorption characteristics of soil amendments and its relationship with the cadmium uptake by hyperaccumulator and normal plants in amended soils. Int J Phytoremediation 16:496–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tahervand S, Jalali M (2017) Sorption and desorption of potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) by soil amended with bentonite, calcite and zeolite as a function of pH. J Geochem Explor 181:148–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Thunyawatcharakul P (2018) Assessment of cadmium migration into groundwater in Mae Sot District, Tak province using Monte Carlo technique. Master thesis. Chulalongkorn UniversityGoogle Scholar
  60. Thunyawatcharakul P, Chotpantarat, S (2018) Sorption characteristics of cadmium in a clay soil of Mae Ku creek, Tak Province, Thailand. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 150:012009Google Scholar
  61. Tiankao W, Chotpantarat S (2018) Risk assessment of arsenic from contaminated soils to shallow groundwater in Ong Phra sub-district, Suphan Buri Province, Thailand. J Hydrol Reg Stud 19:80–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Toride N, Leij FJ, van Genuchten MT (1999) The CXTFIT code for estimating transport parameters from laboratory or field tracer experiments, version 2.1, Tech. Rep. Research 20 Report No. 137, US Salinity Laboratory, Agricultual Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Riverside, California, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  63. Tsang D, Lo I (2006) Influence of pore-water velocity on transport behavior of cadmium: equilibrium versus nonequilibrium. J Hazard Toxic Radioact 10:162–170Google Scholar
  64. Undabeytia T, Nir S, Rytwo G, Mirillo E, Maqueda C (1998) Modeling adsorption-desorption process of Cd on montmorillonite. Clay Clay Miner 46:423–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. van der Zee SEATM, Temminghoff EJM (2008) Mechanistic approach for bioavailability of chemicals in soil. In: Hartemink AE, McBratney AB, Naidu R (eds) Developments in soil science: chemical bioavailability in terrestrial environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 519–556Google Scholar
  66. Vanderborght J, Vereecken H (2007) Review of dispersivities for transport modeling in soils. Vadose Zone J 6(1):29–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. WHO (2010) Exposure to cadmium: a major pubilc health concern. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  68. Wikiniyadhanee R, Chotpantarat S, Ong SK (2015) Effects of kaolinite colloids on Cd2+ transport through saturated sand under varying ionic strength conditions: column experiments and modeling approaches. J Contam Hydrol 182:146–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wikiniyadhanee R, Chotpantarat S, Ong SK (2016) Transport and interaction of kaolinite and Cd2+ in a sand media: batch and column experiments. Terr Atmos Ocean Sci 27:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wipatwit S (2015) Pollution risk assessment of groundwater caused from cadmium contaminated soils in Mae Sot subdistrict. Mae Sot district, Tak province. Senior project. Chulalongkorn UniversityGoogle Scholar
  71. Wongsasuluk P, Chotpantarat S, Siriwong W, Robson M (2014) Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. Environ Geochem Health 36:169–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wongsasuluk P, Chotpantarat S, Siriwong W, Robson M (2018a) Using urine as a biomarker in human exposure risk associated with arsenic and other heavy metals contaminating drinking groundwater in intensively agricultural areas of Thailand. Environ Geochem Health 40:323–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wongsasuluk P, Chotpantarat S, Siriwong W, Robson M (2018b) Using hair and fingernails in binary logistic regression for bio-monitoring of heavy metals/metalloid in groundwater in intensively agricultural areas, Thailand. Environ Res 162:106–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhao P, Zhang X, Sun C, Wu J, Wu Y (2017) Experimental study of conservative solute transport in heterogeneous aquifers. Environ Earth Sci 76(12):1–13Google Scholar
  75. Zhen Q, Zheng J, He H, Han F, Zhang X (2016) Effects of Pisha sandstone content on solute transport in a sand soil. Chemosphere 144:2214–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhou B, Wang Q (2017) Effect of pore water velocities and solute input methods on chloride transport in the undisturbed soil columns of Loess Plateau. Appl Water Sci 7:2321–2328CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate SchoolChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Research Program of Toxic Substance Management in the Mining Industry, Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM)Chulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Research Unit of Green Mining (GMM)Chulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  5. 5.Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental EngineeringIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations